as does his being pardoned, for even Almighty God cannot forgive a sin that has not been committed in thought, word or deed.

83. M. What other prophets are said in the Qur'an to have sinned?

C. (b) Noah is represented in Surah LXXI., Nuh, 29, as asking forgiveness for himself. This implies that he had sinned, otherwise the words are meaningless.

(c) Abraham was guilty of idolatry (شِرك ), as is stated in Surah VI., Al An'am, 76, 77, 78. This is the one sin for which, according to Surah IV., An Nisa, 51, 116, there is no forgiveness. In Surah II., Al Baqarah, 262, we are told that Abraham doubted God's power to raise the dead (and this is confirmed by the expression نحن اولى بالشّك من أبراهيم ). This is another of the "greater" sins. Imam Muslim and Bukhari on Surah XXI., Al Anbiya', 64, quote from Abu Hurairah a saying of Muhammad that Abraham told "only" three lies, all of which are mentioned in the Qur'an1. Abraham confessed that he had sinned, and prayed for pardon (Surah XIV., Ibrahim, 42), so there can be no doubt about his guilt.

(d) Moses, we are told in Surah XXVIII., Al Qisas, 14, 15, committed murder, and confessed that this was the work of Satan; he asked for forgiveness and was pardoned. In Surah XXVI., Ash Shu'ara', 19, Moses confessed that he had done the deed


when he was one of the "transgressors" (الضالين ). In Surah VII., Al A'raf, 150, Moses begged forgiveness for himself and his brother Aaron, thus confessing that they had both sinned. He also sinned in throwing down the two tablets of the Law, and in insulting Aaron, as there recorded. Some of these sins were of the "greater" order.

(e) Aaron, as is confessed by Moses in the last quoted passage, sinned in permitting the idolatry of the Israelites when they worshipped the Golden Calf.

(f) Joseph is accused of sinning in thought by Wahidi (Kitabu'l Basit) in his comment on the word هم in Surah XII., Yusuf, 24, though this is not in accordance with the Biblical account of the incident there referred to, and the Arabic may be otherwise understood.

(g) David, in Surah XXXVIII., Sad, 23, 24, asked forgiveness, repented, and was forgiven. Uns bin Malik, Ibn 'Abbas and Wahab agree in thus explaining the text.

(h) Solomon also, in Surah XXXVIII., Sad, 34, we are told, asked forgiveness. He must therefore have been conscious of guilt.

(i) Jonah too is said in Surah XXXVII., as Safat, 139-144, to have fled from God's command and to have therefore been "blameworthy" (مليم ). The passage clearly states that this sin was committed at the time when he was one of God's messengers or "apostles" (من المرسلين min al mursalin).