are not upholding a doctrine which is in itself opposed to Reason or even to the Qur'an.

80. M. But many of your doctrines, which you say are taught in the Bible, are contrary to both. For example, your Bible represents all men except Christ as sinners—even the prophets. Consider what shameful tales it tells of the sins of Lot, David, and Solomon. Even Moses is said to have sinned. Peter is said to have thrice denied Christ, and Paul speaks of himself as the chief of sinners. Is it not contrary to reason to represent God as using wicked men as His messengers? We deem all the prophets sinless (معصوم), at least after 1 their call to the prophetic office.

C. And thereby you contradict your own Qur'an, which mentions sins as committed by all the prophets except Jesus, regarding whom alone it is never said that He sinned or asked pardon for having sinned. Your traditions (احاديث) agree with this: for Imam Muslim tells us that Muhammad said to 'Ayisha that every child who is born of Adam's seed is at his birth pricked by Satan, except Jesus and His mother 2. Imam Ghazzali says that Satan declared that he had been present at the birth of every child except at that of Jesus. This agrees with Surah III., 'Al 'Imran, 31: "I have

1 This is said to be the correct form of the dogma, but Muslims generally seem to forget this clause, at least at the outset of an argument on the subject: vide § 82.
2 Or, 'touched under the rib.' Vide Mishkat, Bab XXV., fasl. i., I, and Bab I., fasl. iii., I.

named her Mary, and I commend her and her offspring to Thy protection from Satan the stoned."

81. M. Where does the Qur'an accuse the prophets of sin?

1C. In very many places, as for example:—(a) Adam is accused of sin in Surahs XX., Ta Ha, 119, and in II., Al Baqarah, 33, 34. He sinned in disbelieving God's word and in disobeying His command, and also in believing what Satan said and in obeying him. From the words وعمى آدم ربّه (wa 'asa' Adamu rabbahu, "and Adam rebelled against his Lord") in the first of these passages it is clear that Adam's sin deserved the punishment of hell fire, in accordance with Surah LXXII., Al Jinn, 24, and it was one of the greater (كبائر kabair) sins.

82. M. But Ar Razi says that Adam sinned before he became a prophet, hence this cannot be counted as a sin committed by a prophet. Moreover, Ar Razi states that Adam repented and was forgiven, and that his sin was not imputed to him.

C. How does Ar Razi know that Adam sinned before becoming a prophet? Besides, you accused us Christians of holding irrational views and ideas contrary to the Qur'an in thinking that "God chose sinful men as prophets." Baizawi agrees with Ar Razi in acknowledging that Adam sinned. The very fact of his repentance proves his sin,

1 Vide Ibhathu'l Mujtahidin, pp. 29 sqq., and also Mr. James Monro's tracts mentioned in the Appendix.