Do the Authentic Teachings of Islam Result in Terrorism?

Examining one Muslim's Challenge

[Part 1] [Part 2]

Sam Shamoun

To help facilitate easier reading, enabling the reader to follow the flow of our arguments, we have broken down this paper into the following sections:

  1. Introduction
  2. The Meaning of Islam
  3. Putting it All in Perspective
  4. Abualrub’s Red Herrings and Smokescreens
  5. The Quran on Waging War

1. Introduction

Jalal Abualrub recently debated Craig Winn on the Mike Gallagher Show regarding Islamic terrorism. To hear the program please go here.

On his own website Abualrub provides a very brief synopsis of the discussion and then follows it up with a challenge. He writes:

Date: Tuesday, August 16th, 2005
Time: 10 am EST.
Event: A debate on Islam on ‘The Mike Gallagher Show’

Jalal Abualrub, author of
The Prophet of Mercy
& Craig Winn, author of
The Prophet of Mercy

Debate Summary: In vain, Jalal Abualrub repeatedly challenged Craig Winn, a self professed ‘expert’ on Islam, to quote a single unequivocal Quranic or Prophetic Statement legislating deliberate, violent targeting of non-combatant men, women, children, priests or rabbis, committing suicide, destroying places of worship or hijacking airplanes and flying them into buildings. The best Winn could do was quote general texts about war activities against combatants in addition to uttering a most absurd claim that the original Quran can only be understood by around 500 people, Winn included, of course.

Jalal Abualrub hereby renews his challenge to Craig Winn to debate his book of doom, one issue at a time, and prove Islam’s ‘terroristic dogma’

Wanted: A Muslim Community to Host This Debate & to Support Project:


  • Why: defend the honor of Muhammad, peace be upon him; expose Winn’s lies about Islam, even if he cowers away from the debate; rebuke Winn for calling Allah and His Prophet ‘terrorists’ and describing the Quran as ‘verbal diarrhea’
  • Where: a public hall (such as a civic center)
  • Who will be invited: the media, including Mike Gallagher, the general public & local religious and community leaders.
  • When: during or before the month of Ramadhan.

Forward this email to your contacts & websites you know of; Without congesting his email or using words of abuse, e-mail Winn at ( ) demanding he defends his book of doom and accepts this challenge.

The last of our speech is, all thanks and praises be to Allah, Lord of everything
(Source: Islam on the Mike Gallagher Show, now defunct)

We have decided to take up Abualrub’s challenge to Craig Winn to prove that Islamic terrorism is part and parcel of the teachings of the Quran and/or the statements of Muhammad. We will call Abualrub’s bluff by examining the Quran, the Sira and hadith literature, as well as the opinions of some scholars to see what authentic Islam says about the killing of non-combatants, specifically the cold-blooded murder of women and children.

But first we want to get one point out of the way.

2. The Meaning of Islam

In the discussion, Abualrub was asked whether Islam is a religion of peace. Abualrub says that the word Islam doesn’t mean peace. He claimed that the literal meaning of Islam is submission, not peace, and that its teachings are not pacifistic:

Islam by definition in Arabic it doesn’t mean peace. It means submission to the will of God. If you are asking if Islam is pacifist, it’s not. But if you are asking if Islam is a terroristic or violent, then it isn’t.

What made this truly amusing is that when Craig basically agreed with Abualrub that the word Islam means submission, Abualrub lashed out and said that Winn didn’t know what he was talking about!

The major problem with Abualrub is that he seeks to attack non-Muslims who dare speak out about Islam but basically ignores the views and opinions of his fellow Muslim brothers. There are other Muslims who believe that the word Islam also means peace:

In his devilish desperation to slander Islam, I once read an article in which a Christian missionary put forward the claim that since the Arabic word sullam means "ladder" or "stairs", and it comes from the same S-L-M root as the word Islam, then this latter word doesn't mean, or isn't related to, "peace". Of all the faulty claims about the word Islam (often grossly pronounced "iz-lum", rather than "is-laaam", by many obviously language-challenged 'mericans) that I've heard in recent years, this one probably represents the most depraved and illogical. Without letting the fact (which any Arabic dictionary will tell you) that salam is indeed the word for "peace" in the Arabic language, this false da'wah desperado issued a claim that just a little honest research would have done away with. This is because the Arabic verb salima/sulima, meaning "be safe" or "be secure", is also based on the same S-L-M root. Thus it shouldn't take much to realize that the essential meaning of sullam is a "way to safety" or "implementation of security" (which is the function that ladders and stairs often perform). Please make some sincere du'a that we have more time to deal with these types of distortions and slanders, since there sure are a lot more where this one came from. As I often say: If Islam is just made up of a bunch of baseless claims and farfetched beliefs, then why do they have to lie about it so much?… Unfortunately, even some Muslims are misinformed about some of the deeper etymological meanings of this word, which Brother Shibli readily demonstrates with some excellent examples from one of the most authoritative classical references on the Arabic language… (Source)

Another Muslim source concurs with Abualrub:

Misconception 1

Islam is `the religion of peace' because:

It might seem strange to think of this as a misconception, but in fact it is. The root word of Islam is "al-silm" which means "submission" or "surrender." It is understood to mean "submission to Allah." In spite of whatever noble intention has caused many a Muslim to claim that Islam is derived primarily from peace, this is not true. Allah says in the Qur'an (translated):

[2:136] Say (O Muslims): We believe in Allah and that which is revealed to us and that which was revealed to Abraham, and Ishmael, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the tribes, and that which Moses and Jesus received, and that which the prophets received from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and to Him we have surrendered. [Arabic "Muslimoon"]

A secondary root of Islam may be "Al-Salaam" (peace), however the text of the Qur'an makes it clear that Allah has clearly intended the focus of this way of life to be submission to Him. This entails submission to Him at all times, in times of peace, war, ease, or difficulty. (Source)

In response to the above, Shibli Zaman claims:

Whoever authored this needs to study the fundamentals of tafseer. Even if this was a misconception is ti such a dangerous one that you have to consider it the #1 misconception?

Now in usool at-tafseer the Qur’aanic terminology can be subject to ikhtilaaf tanawwu’. There are two types of textual Ikhtilaaf: Ikhtilaaf tanawwu’ (supplementary variance) and ikhtilaaf tadaad (contradiction). The latter does not exist in the Qur’aan or authenticated Sunnah…

Similarly, the word al-Islaam is a derivative of al-Istislaam which does not just mean surrender! It means submit, to be sincere, to find peace, and the like. It means all the above.

Ibn al-Manthoor explains this in Lisaan al- ‘Arab as follows…

As-salaam – al-istislaam, likewise, as-silmu and as-salmu: al-istislaam is the antonym of warfare." (if I could emphasize this more than just bolding I would!)

He says further…

"al-Islaam and al-Istislaam: submission.."

Yet, further…

"Regarding al-Islaam, Abu Bakr Muhammad bin Bashaar has stated: It is said, ‘So-and-so is a Muslim,’ and regarding this there are two sayings. First, it means he has submitted to the command of Allaah. Second, it means they are sincere in their worship of Allaah."

So what does Islaam mean? It means one who has found peace by sincerely surrendering to Allaah (subhanahu wa ta ‘aala), fa-l hamdu lllahi-rabbi-l ‘aalameen.

I don’t know what is more tragic: The enemies of Allaah claiming that Islaam is not a religion of peace, or certain types of Muslims bent on making Islaam not a religion of peace… (Source)

Now we do agree with Abualrub regarding the point that the word Islam does not mean peace, since Islam itself is anything but peaceful (at least to unbelievers). But his problem isn’t with non-Muslims, but with his fellow Muslims. He needs to educate and debate his other brethren who disagree with his definition of Islam, as well as with his very anthropomorphic conception of God.

3. Putting it All in Perspective

Abualrub works hard to give his audience the impression that the ones who are supposedly distorting the picture of Islam are the Orientalists, the so-called "Neo-Cons" (one of the new words that Abualrub has learned and uses ad infinitum), and Christians etc.

What Abualrub fails to tell his readers is that it is the Muslim terrorists themselves who are copiously quoting the Quran and Islamic traditions to support their terrorism and barbarism.

We want the readers to pay close attention to all the Quranic verses and Prophetic traditions cited by Osama bin Laden to justify his hate and barbarity in the excerpts that we will be presenting. The following are taken from Laden's Sermon for the Feast of the Sacrifice, March 5, 2003. We have italicized all the Quranic verses and hadith narrations used by Osama, as well as corrected several of the typos and mistakes. All underline emphasis will be ours as well:

"Praise be to Allah who revealed the verse of the Sword to his servant and messenger [the Prophet Muhammad], in order to establish truth and abolish falsehood. Praise be to Allah who said 'When the sacred months are over, kill the idolaters wherever you find them, take them captive, lay siege to them and lie in wait for them at every place of ambush. But if they repent and perform the prayers and give alms, let them go. For God is most forgiving and merciful.' And praise be to Allah who said: 'Fight them, may God punish them by your hands and put them to shame and give you victory over them and heal the hearts of the believers.'

Prayers and blessings of peace upon our Prophet Muhammad, who said: 'I was sent with a sword in preparation for the Day of Judgment when God alone will be worshipped with none beside him. He assigned me a livelihood under the shadow of my spear and he assigned humiliation and lowliness to those who disobey my command. He who makes himself resemble a community of people, is one of them.' He also said: 'Expel the idolaters from the Arabian peninsula.'…

Come let me tell you what is meant by 'Greater Israel' and what disasters will beset the region. What is happening to our people in Palestinian is merely a model which the Zio-American alliance wishes to impose upon the rest of the region: the killing of men, women and children, prisons, terrorism, the demolition of homes, the razing of farms, the destruction of factories. People live in perpetual fear and paralyzing terror, awaiting death at any moment from a missile or shell which will destroy their homes, kill their sisters and bury their babies alive. What response shall we make to Allah tomorrow [on the Day of Judgment]? What is happening there is unbearable [even] for able-bodied men - is it not even harder for the enfeebled mothers who see their children killed before their very eyes? We come from Allah, and unto Him we shall return. We put our trust in Allah. Oh God, I beg you [to save us] from the actions of the Jews, the Christians the treacherous rulers and their ilk, and I apologize to you for the actions of those who fail to take part in the struggle for Islam.

The founding of 'Greater Israel' means the surrender of the countries of the region to the Jews. Come let me tell you who the Jews are. The Jews have lied about the Creator, and even more so about His creations. The Jews are the murderers of the prophets, the violators of agreements, of whom Allah said: 'Every time they make a promise under oath, some of them violated it; most of them are unbelievers.' These are the Jews: usurers and whoremongers. They will leave you nothing, neither this world nor religion. Allah said of them: 'Have they a share in [God's] dominion? If they have, they will not give up so much [of it] as would equal a spot on the stone of a date.' Such are the Jews who, in accordance with their religion, believe that human beings are their slaves and that those who refuse [to recognize this] should be put to death. Allah said of them: 'They said: 'We need not fulfill any undertaking to these unlettered people [i.e., non-Jews]. They deliberately attributed falsehood to Allah.'

These are some of the Jews' qualities, of which you must beware, and these are some of the features of the Crusader plot, which you must resist. Now, what can be done to block the evil of the infidels and save the Muslim lands? In response I say -- [though] success comes only from Allah, as His prophet Shu`ayb said: 'I wish only to set things right insofar as it is in my power, and my way will prosper only with the help of Allah, on whom I rely and to whom I appeal'-- Jihad for the sake of Allah is the way to stop the infidels, as Allah said: 'Fight for the sake of Allah, you are accountable only for yourself, and urge the believers [to join the Jihad]. Perhaps Allah will curb the might of the infidels; Allah is most mighty and most capable of inflicting punishment.'

First of all, I am happy to tell you that the [Islamic] Nation today possesses tremendous forces sufficient to save Palestine and the rest of the Muslim lands. However, these forces are shackled, and action must be taken to liberate them. The [Islamic] Nation has been promised victory, but if victory is delayed, it will be because of our sins and because we failed to help the cause of Allah. Allah said: 'If you help [the cause of] Allah, he will give you victory and strengthen your position.'…

Come let me tell you what that terrible disaster means: the 'unkempt of hair and dusty of foot' pounced -- they who are everywhere hunted down, young men who believed in their Lord, whom Allah had guided to the right path, whose hearts He had strengthened and filled with faith. [These young men, when it comes to acting] for Allah's cause, do not fear 'the reprimands of those who seek to find fault' because they desire only Allah's recompense; their hearts do not allow them to close to injustice; they sacrifice their lives, but never their honor…

The [Islamic] Nation has also been promised victory over the Jews, as the Prophet Mohammad has told us: 'The Day of Judgment will not arrive until the Muslims fight the Jews and kill them, until the Jew hides behind the stones and the trees; and each stone or tree will say: Oh Muslim, Oh servant of God, there is a Jew hiding behind me, come and kill him; apart from the gharqad, which is the tree of the Jews.' This hadith also teaches [us] that the conflict with the enemy will be settled by killing and warfare, and not by disabling the potential of the Nation for decades by a variety of means such as the deception of democracy… There is no difference between Karzai of Riyadh and Karzai of Kabul. Take note, oh wise ones: 'Are your unbelievers better than these? Or [do you believe that] they have been given acquittal in the holy books?'…

It is also incumbent on all Muslims to disavow these tyrannical rulers. It is well known that to disavow these tyrants is not merely a supererogatory meritorious act; rather, it is one of the two pillars of monotheism without which Islam cannot stand firmly. Allah said: 'He who renounces taghut and believes in Allah – he surely grasps a firm support. Allah hears all and knows all.'… Another group has been protected by Allah from placating and flattering the treacherous rulers; they persisted in remaining under the banner of 'commanding [the doing of] good and forbidding [the doing of] evil.' They made commendable efforts in preaching the cause of Allah. However, the pressures we mentioned above were very heavy and [this group] have not prepared themselves to bear the burdens [of the cause], whose two most important duties are hijra and Jihad. In the past two decades they have had the opportunity [to perform hijra and Jihad], but they did not avail themselves of it. Thus they lost the ability to make the right decision in these difficult days, except for those upon whom Allah has had mercy. Therefore, we see that some of them, to this day, have not decided in favor of Jihad and resistance. According to the Koran and the biography of the Prophet, Allah's prayers and peace upon him, and the biographies of his noble Companions -- may Allah be pleased with them – supporting the Religion [of Islam] involves grave obligations and distinct qualities. He who does not have these qualities cannot act in support of Religion. Allah the Exalted mentions these qualities in the Koran, saying, among other things: 'Oh you who have embraced Islam, whosoever among you lapses from his faith, Allah shall bring other people who love Him and whom He loves, who will be humble toward the Believers and stern toward the unbelievers; they will engage in Jihad for the sake of Allah without fearing any reproach from anyone. Such is the grace of Allah; He bestows it upon whomever He will. Allah is munificent and omniscient.'…

Now, let me talk about what is incumbent upon Muslims in the face of this Crusader-Zionist war against the Nation of Islam. Allah has said: 'Fight for the sake of Allah, you are accountable only for yourself, and urge the believers [to join the Jihad], perhaps Allah will ward off the might of the infidels; Allah is most mighty and most capable of inflicting punishment.

The most important religious duty – after belief itself – is to ward off and fight the enemy aggressor. Sheikh al-Islam [Ibn Taymiyya], may Allah have mercy upon him, said: 'To drive off the enemy aggressor who destroys both religion and the world – there is no religious duty more important than this, apart from belief itself.' This is an unconditional rule.

Jihad is obligatory now for the Islamic Nation, which is in a state of sin unless it gives of its sons, its possessions and its powers whatever is required to maintain Jihad, which will preserve all Muslims in Palestine and elsewhere from the military might of the infidels. It is incumbent on the Muslims to engage in Jihad so as to establish the truth and abrogate falsehood – each according to his capability. Allah's messenger said in Muslim's reliable book: 'Whosoever fights them [the enemies of Islam] with his arm is a believer, whosoever fights them with his tongue is a believer and whosoever fights them in his heart is a believer, but there is not even the slightest measure of belief without this [that is, without at least one of the three].'

This sublime Prophetic tradition [hadith] embraces all Believers. Since we are Believers, we are [necessarily] Mujahideen for the sake of Allah on behalf of Islam. Hence, a Muslim who is unable to engage in Jihad with his hand or tongue must engage in Jihad in his heart. This means that he should incessantly hate Allah's enemies and curse them, [just] as he should constantly be loyal to the Believers and the Mujahideen; he should pray for them and feel the brotherhood of belief that binds him to all Muslims everywhere in the world, in both east and west. He should feel that the Believers are in one tent and that the infidels are in another, until Allah bestows on the [Islamic] Nation one government which will unite all Muslims under its banner, God willing. He [who engages in Jihad in his heart] should [at least] urge himself to engage in Jihad with his hand and his tongue. This [Jihad of the mind] is the weakest kind of Islamic faith. He should boycott products [manufactured by] the Americans and their allies. The Believer should be particularly careful not to support falsehood because assisting infidels against other Muslims [even] if only verbally is flagrant unbelief, as has been determined by the scholars. He should beware of those of whom Allah said: 'Allah knows those of you who hold the others back; who say to their brethren: Come, join us! and seldom take part in the fighting.' He should not add the grave sin of discouraging [others] to the grave sin of avoiding Jihad… (Source)

Here is a listing of all the Quranic verses cited by Osama in the order in which they appear, apart from the hadiths: 9:5, 14; 2:156, 100; 4:52; 3:75; 11:88; 4:84; 47:7; 5:54; 54:43; 2:256; 5:54; 4:84; 33:18.

And now from Osama Bin Laden’s Declaration of War against the US - Manuscript August 23, 1996:

Praise be to Allah, we seek His help and ask for his pardon. We take refuge in Allah from our wrongs and bad deeds. Who ever been guided by Allah will not be misled, and who ever has been misled, he will never be guided. I bear witness that there is no God except Allah-no associates with Him- and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and messenger.

{O you who believe! be careful of -your duty to- Allah with the proper care which is due to Him, and do not die unless you are Muslim} (Imraan; 3:102), {O people be careful of -your duty to- your Lord, Who created you from a single being and created its mate of the same -kind-and spread from these two, many men and women; and be careful of –your duty to- Allah, by whom you demand one of another -your rights-, and (be careful) to the ties of kinship; surely Allah ever watches over you} (An-Nisa; 4:1), {O you who believe! be careful- of your duty- to Allah and speak the right word; He will put your deeds into a right state for you, and forgive you your faults; and who ever obeys Allah and his Apostle, he indeed achieve a mighty success} (Al-Ahzab; 33:70-71).

Praise be to Allah, reporting the saying of the prophet Shu'aib: {I desire nothing but reform so far as I am able, and with non but Allah is the direction of my affair to the right and successful path; on him do I rely and to him do I turn} (Hud; 11:88).

Praise be to Allah, saying: {You are the best of the nations raised up for -the benefit of- men; you enjoin what is right and forbid the wrong and believe in Allah} (Aal-Imraan; 3:110). Allah's blessing and salutations on His slave and messenger who said: (The people are close to an all encompassing punishment from Allah if they see the oppressor and fail to restrain him)…

(3) The state of the press and the media which became a tool of truth-hiding and misinformation; the media carried out the plan of the enemy of idolizing cult of certain personalities and spreading scandals among the believers to repel the people away from their religion, as Allah, the Exalted said: {surely- as for- those who love that scandal should circulate between the believers, they shall have a grievous chastisement in this world and in the here after} (An-Noor, 24:19)…

As stated by the people of knowledge, it is not a secret that to use man made law instead of the Shari'a and to support the infidels against the Muslims is one of the ten "voiders" that would strip a person from his Islamic status (turn a Muslim into a Mushrik, non believer status). The All Mighty said: {and whoever did not judge by what Allah revealed, those are the unbelievers} (Al-Ma'ida; 5:44), and {but no! by your Lord! they do not believe (in reality) until they make you a judge of that which has become a matter of disagreement among them, and then do not find the slightest misgiving in their hearts as to what you have decided and submit with entire submission} (An-Nissa; 4:65)…

In the shadow of these discussions and arguments truthfulness is covered by the falsehood, and personal feuds and partisanship created among the people increasing the division and the weakness of the Ummah; priorities of the Islamic work are lost while the blasphemy and polytheism continue its grip and control over the Ummah. We should be alert to these atrocious plans carried out by the Ministry of Interior. The right answer is to follow what have been decided by the people of knowledge, as was said by Ibn Taymiyyah (Allah's mercy upon him): "people of Islam should join forces and support each other to get rid of the main "Kufr" who is controlling the countries of the Islamic world, even to bear the lesser damage to get rid of the major one, that is the great Kufr".

If there are more than one duty to be carried out, then the most important one should receive priority. Clearly after Belief (Imaan) there is no more important duty than pushing the American enemy out of the holy land. No other priority, except Belief, could be considered before it; the people of knowledge, Ibn Taymiyyah, stated: "to fight in defence of religion and Belief is a collective duty; there is no other duty after Belief than fighting the enemy who is corrupting the life and the religion. There is no preconditions for this duty and the enemy should be fought with one best abilities. (ref: supplement of Fatawa). If it is not possible to push back the enemy except by the collective movement of the Muslim people, then there is a duty on the Muslims to ignore the minor differences among themselves; the ill effect of ignoring these differences, at a given period of time, is much less than the ill effect of the occupation of the Muslims' land by the main Kufr. Ibn Taymiyyah had explained this issue and emphasised the importance of dealing with the major threat on the expense of the minor one. He described the situation of the Muslims and the Mujahideen and stated that even the military personnel who are not practising Islam are not exempted from the duty of Jihad against the enemy.

Ibn Taymiyyah, after mentioning the Moguls (Tatar) and their behaviour in changing the law of Allah, stated that: the ultimate aim of pleasing Allah, raising His word, instituting His religion and obeying His messenger (ALLAH'S BLESSING AND SALUTATIONS ON HIM) is to fight the enemy, in every aspects and in a complete manner; if the danger to the religion from not fighting is greater than that of fighting, then it is a duty to fight them even if the intention of some of the fighter is not pure i.e. fighting for the sake of leadership (personal gain) or if they do not observe some of the rules and commandments of Islam. To repel the greatest of the two dangers on the expense of the lesser one is an Islamic principle which should be observed. It was the tradition of the people of the Sunnah (Ahlul-Sunnah) to join and invade- fight- with the righteous and non righteous men. Allah may support this religion by righteous and non righteous people as told by the prophet (ALLAH'S BLESSING AND SALUTATIONS ON HIM). If it is not possible to fight except with the help of non righteous military personnel and commanders, then there are two possibilities: either fighting will be ignored and the others, who are the great danger to this life and religion, will take control; or to fight with the help of non righteous rulers and therefore repelling the greatest of the two dangers and implementing most, though not all, of the Islamic laws. The latter option is the right duty to be carried out in these circumstances and in many other similar situation. In fact many of the fights and conquests that took place after the time of Rashidoon, the guided Imams, were of this type. (majmoo' al Fatawa, 26/506).

No one, not even a blind or a deaf person, can deny the presence of the widely spread mischief's or the prevalence of the great sins that had reached the grievous iniquity of polytheism and to share with Allah in His sole right of sovereignty and making of the law. The All Mighty stated: {And when Luqman said to his son while he admonish him: O my son! do not associate ought with Allah; most surely polytheism is a grievous iniquity} (Luqman; 31:13). Man fabricated laws were put forward permitting what has been forbidden by Allah such as usury (Riba) and other matters. Banks dealing in usury are competing, for lands, with the two Holy Places and declaring war against Allah by disobeying His order {Allah has allowed trading and forbidden usury} (Baqarah; 2:275). All this taking place at the vicinity of the Holy Mosque in the Holy Land! Allah (SWT) stated in His Holy Book a unique promise (that had not been promised to any other sinner) to the Muslims who deals in usury: {O you who believe! Be careful of your duty to Allah and relinquish what remains (due) from usury, if you are believers * But if you do (it) not, then be appraised of WAR from Allah and His Apostle} (Baqarah; 2:278-279). This is for the "Muslim" who deals in usury (believing that it is a sin), what is it then to the person who make himself a partner and equal to Allah, legalizing (usury and other sins) what has been forbidden by Allah. Despite of all of the above we see the government misled and dragged some of the righteous Ulamah and Da'ees away from the issue of objecting to the greatest of sins and Kufr. (We bemoan this and can only say: "No power and power acquiring except through Allah"). (Source)


Our youths believe in paradise after death. They believe that taking part in fighting will not bring their day nearer; and staying behind will not postpone their day either. Exalted be to Allah who said: {And a soul will not die but with the permission of Allah, the term is fixed} (Aal Imraan; 3:145). Our youths believe in the saying of the messenger of Allah (Allah's Blessings and Salutations may be on him): "O boy, I teach a few words; guard (guard the cause of, keep the commandments of) Allah, then He guards you, guard (the cause of ) Allah, then He will be with you; if you ask (for your need) ask Allah, if you seek assistance, seek Allah's; and know definitely that if the Whole World gathered to (bestow) profit on you they will not profit you except with what was determined for you by Allah, and if they gathered to harm you they will not harm you except with what has been determined for you by Allah; Pen lifted, papers dried, it is fixed nothing in these truths can be changed" Saheeh Al-Jame' As-Sagheer. Our youths took note of the meaning of the poetic verse:

"if death is a predetermined must, then it is a shame to die cowardly"

and the other poet saying:

" who do not die by the sword will die by other reason; many causes are there but one death".

These youths believe in what has been told by Allah and His messenger (Allah's Blessings and Salutations may be on him) about the greatness of the reward for the Mujahideen and Martyrs; Allah, the most exalted said: {and -so far- those who are slain in the way of Allah, He will by no means allow their deeds to perish. He will guide them and improve their condition. And cause them to enter the garden -paradise- which He has made known to them}. (Muhammad; 47:4-6). Allah the Exalted also said: {and do not speak of those who are slain in Allah's way as dead; nay -they are- alive, but you do not perceive} (Baqarah; 2:154). His messenger (Allah's Blessings and Salutations may be on him) said: "for those who strive in His cause Allah prepared hundred degrees (levels) in paradise; in-between two degrees as the in-between heaven and earth". Saheeh Al-Jame' As-Sagheer. He (Allah's Blessings and Salutations may be on him) also said: "the best of the martyrs are those who do NOT turn their faces away from the battle till they are killed. They are in the high level of Jannah (paradise). Their Lord laughs to them (in pleasure) and when your Lord laughs to a slave of His, He will not hold him to an account". Narrated by Ahmad with correct and trustworthy reference. And: "a martyr will not feel the pain of death except like how you feel when you are pinched". Saheeh Al-Jame' As-Sagheer. He also said: "a martyr privileges are guaranteed by Allah; forgiveness with the first gush of his blood, he will be shown his seat in paradise, he will be decorated with the jewels of belief (Imaan), married off to the beautiful ones, protected from the test in the grave, assured security in the day of judgement, crowned with the crown of dignity, a ruby of which is better than this whole world (Duniah) and its' entire content, wedded to seventy two of the pure Houries (beautiful ones of Paradise) and his intercession on the behalf of seventy of his relatives will be accepted". Narrated by Ahmad and At-Tirmithi (with the correct and trustworthy reference)…

Our youths chanting and reciting the word of Allah, the most exalted: {fight them; Allah will punish them by your hands and bring them to disgrace, and assist you against them and heal the heart of a believing people} (At-Taubah; 9:14) and the words of the prophet (ALLAH'S BLESSING AND SALUTATIONS ON HIM): "I swear by Him, who has my soul in His hand, that no man get killed fighting them today, patiently attacking and not retreating ,surely Allah will let him into paradise". And his (Allah's Blessings and Salutations may be on him) saying to them: "get up to a paradise as wide as heaven and earth".

The youths also reciting the All Mighty words of: {so when you meet in battle those who disbelieve, then smite the necks........} (Muhammad; 47:19)…

My Muslim Brothers of The World:

Your brothers in Palestine and in the land of the two Holy Places are calling upon your help and asking you to take part in fighting against the enemy -your enemy and their enemy- the Americans and the Israelis. They are asking you to do whatever you can, with one own means and ability, to expel the enemy, humiliated and defeated, out of the sanctities of Islam. Exalted be to Allah said in His book: {and if they ask your support, because they are oppressed in their faith, then support them!} (Anfaal; 8:72) (Source)

As the reader can see, terrorists like Osama have studied the Quran and Islam very carefully. They believe that what they are doing is perfectly in line with the teachings of Muhammad and the Quran. They do not see their acts as perversions of Islam, but as being perfectly compatible and in line with sound Islamic theology.

In fact, note what this next Muslim website says about those who deny that terrorism is part of Islam:


Many people use the term ‘terrorism’, particularly because of claim of USA that their war is against ‘terrorism’. However, this frequent use is without first to define the term ‘terrorism’. This is a very dangerous practice, because it becomes subjective to personal opinion and can be abused and applied to anyone who disagrees with the user or against whom they hold a grudge against etc.

We see in the west, that they are eager to issue new laws under the pretext of ‘terrorism’, enabling them to arrest arbitrarily and hold without charge or evidence and even hold them indefinitely as we have seen on numerous occasions; without to define terrorism they can include or exclude whoever they like from this legislation.

It becomes a duty upon Muslims when they come under attack, and when the scholars and the da’ees come under attack under this pretext, to give the Islamic verdict on terrorism and explain what the Islamic stance is on terrorism…


Allah (swt) says,

"Prepare as much as you can from power (missile weaponry) and steeds of war, in order to terrify the enemy of Allah" [EMQ Anfal: 60]

Allah (swt) made it obligatory in this ayah to prepare (Al I’daad) AND TO TERRIFY (Al Irhaab) the enemy of Allah. This is waajib and this ayah is qati’ (clear cut) and whoever denies it’s meaning is kaafir regardless of his ‘interpretation’ of terrorism. Allah (swt) says,

"Nobody rejects the ayat except the Kafirun." [EMQ Ankabut: 47]

The ayah mentioned Al Ijhaad, which means:

"To reject and say by the tongue: ‘it is not true’."

Furthermore, Allah (swt) says,

"Who is more oppressor than the one who lies about Allah or denies the truth when it comes to him? Is there not a place in hell for the Kafirun? As for those who strive hard in our cause, we will surely guide them to our paths. Verily, Allah is with the Muhsinun." [EMQ Ankabut: 68-69]

Whoever says that Islam is free from terrorism or wants to differentiate between Islam and terrorism is committing Al Juhoud and that is Kufr Akbar – AND WILL TAKE THEM OUT OF THE FOLD OF ISLAM.

The one who says ‘we should fight against terrorism’, HE IS FIGHTING AGAINST ISLAM. We know very well that USA meant no one else by the term ‘terrorists’ but Islam and Muslims and the one who wants to avoid terrorism, IS AVOIDING ISLAM.


It is known that the USA is the enemy of Islam and Muslims. The fact that it is Dar ul Kufr Asslie, by default it is the enemy of Islam and Muslims. The original rules for any state that is not dar ul Islam nor has a treaty with it is that it is the enemy. There should be no doubt in the minds of any Muslims that the jews and Christians are kafir and the enemy of Islam and Muslims. Allah (swt) says,

"Those who disbelieve of the people of the book and the mushrikeen are in the hellfire forever, they are the worst of creation." [EMQ Bayyinah: 6]

and Allah (swt) says,

"Those who claim that Allah is Jesus ibn Maryam, they are kafir …" [EMQ Ma’idah: 17]

In this ayah, there is the manifestation of the anger of Allah (swt) when he said,

"Those who claim that Allah is ‘Isa ibn Maryam, they are kafir, who can have any protection if Allah decides to destroy Isa and his mother and all the people of the earth?" [EMQ Ma’idah: 17]

Allah (swt) says,

"Fight those who do not believe in Allah nor in the last day, nor do they forbid what Allah and his Messenger forbid, and they do not follow the deen of Haq among the people of the book (jews and Christians), until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission and feel themselves subdued." [EMQ 9: 29]

Whoever denies that the Jews and Christians are kafir, they are kafir. Allah (swt) in this ayah, made the purpose of fighting them because of their kufr, regardless of whether or not they fight us.

People ask "why do you say that the kuffar are the enemy?" despite Allah’s (swt) saying,

"The kuffar are for you a clear enemy." [EMQ 4: 101]

Because of this ayah we should fear Allah and stop calling the kuffar our friends. The kuffar of USA and UK are kafir Asslie; they are without any doubt our enemy. We do not fight them, only because of the covenant of security that is binding on us. Allah said,

"Terrify the enemy of Allah and your enemy" [Anfal: 60]

USA is not only the enemy because they disbelieve in Allah; more than that they are actively fighting against Islam and Muslims. Without any doubt, terrorism against them is obligatory.


Islam does not recognise any difference between the kuffar, they are either zhimmi (under the Islamic state) or mu’ahhed (has covenant with a Muslim), or he is harbi and has no sanctity for his life or wealth.

THERE IS NO SUCH THING AS AN ‘INNOCENT’ KAFIR, innocence is only applicable for the Muslims; do not say ‘innocent’ for the kafir, the most you can say for them is that they are ‘victims’. The Muslim however, is innocent EVEN IF HE ENGAGES TO FIGHT AND CONQUER THE KAFIR, because he is fulfilling the shari’ah.

In the Shari’ah we either say zhimmi or harbi, zhimmi is either man, woman or child. The purpose of this classification is the need to know who from among them will pay the jizyah.

The Harbi is classified for his hukm, is it hukman only? or hukman wa fi’lan – meaning that we fight him? Those we fight are those who are male, young and rich (i.e. they are suitable for fighting). They deserve to be fought, WHETHER THEY FIGHT US OR NOT.

Generally the harbi hukman (non-fighter) but not fi’lan are the women and children as long as they do not actually fight, the elder men, the disabled men, the blind or insane men etc, none of these are fought against as long as they do not themselves fight (like they do today) NOR SUPPORTS THE FIGHTING, NOR DO THEY DO ANYTHING THAT LEADS TO SUPPORT OF THE FIGHTING. [Al Mughni – ibn Qudama Al Maqdisi]

Nowadays, the women are also fighting (e.g. in Israel) and so take the same hukm as the enemy AND SHOULD BE TERRORISED ALONG WITH THEM. Imam Shafi’i said,

"There is no dispute among the fuqaha that if the non-fighters begin to fight, they will be killed." [Kitab ul  Umm]

Therefore, to use the term ‘innocent’ or ‘civilian’ is not correct because we know that the majority of men are fighters BECAUSE OF THEIR CAPABILITY TO FIGHT.

Even children, if they begin to fight they will be fought with the enemy as fighters, the exception only being the babies. Toddlers will never be called fighters and they are the only ones who some fuqaha say that they are innocent, OTHERS SAY NO, that they are the children of the kuffar and so are kuffar like them. Ahl Al Sunnah Wal Jama’ah believe that the babies are born on the fitrah AND THE CHILDREN OF THE KUFFAR ARE ON THEIR WAY TO BECOMING KAFIR.

Sheikh Omar Bakri Muhammad believes that the children in general below the age of distinguishing (4-7) are innocent. The sahabah asked the prophet (saw),

"When we raided by night, we found amongst the dead many children," he (saw) said, "they are part of them"

So despite the fact that they are innocent; if they are killed by mistake their account is with Allah, even if innocent Muslims were killed in the attack THE FIGHTING IS STILL PERMISSIBLE.

There is no sin if they are killed by mistake, this is called Al Tatarrus - that if you cannot kill the enemy without to go through them, you kill and you know that Allah will deal with them.

Umm Salamah narrated about people who made ghazu for the Ka’bah, Allah (swt) made landslides to destroy them AND AMONG THEM WERE MANY WOMEN AND CHILDREN AND EVEN MUSLIMS, the prophet (saw) said,

"There will be khasef for the beginning and end of them and each will be accounted on the day of judgement."

If the people in the target are a mix between those who deserved to be killed and some who do not, THAT DOES NOT PREVENT TO FIGHT AND KILL ALL OF THEM TOGETHER.

Some people will ask the question, "what about the family of the killed kuffar?" However, IT IS WELL KNOWN THAT IT IS NOT ALLOWED TO FEEL ANY SYMPATHY FOR THE KUFFAR, Allah (swt) says,

"Do not feel sorry for the fasiqeen (the Jews)."  [EMQ 5: 26]

and He (swt) says,

"Do not feel sorry for the kafireen." [EMQ 5: 68]

Allah (swt) says,

"Allah shook the earth, all of them were killed, those who said Shu’aib was not nabi, as if they never had money nor lived there, say: "O My people, I have conveyed the message of my lord to you. After that, how dare I feel sympathy for the kafireen?" [EMQ A’raf: 91 -93]

Not only is it OBLIGATORY to fight them, IT IS HARAM TO FEEL SORRY FOR THEM WHEN THEY ARE KILLED. It is haram for us to feel sorry for them when Allah sends on them natural disasters, let alone when they are killed deliberately for the sake of Allah.

Moreover, Allah (swt) says,

"Fight them, Allah will punish them with your hands, and humiliate them and support you against them and cure the hearts of the believers …" [EMQ 9: 14]

Allah made it clear for us, that any calamity that occurs to them will make us satisfied in our hearts AND THAT THE KUFFAR HAVE NO KARAMAH (DIGNITY).


Allah (swt) says,

"O you who believe, do not take the jews and Christians as allies, they are allies to each other, and anyone of you who takes them as allies is one of them, and Allah will never guide the oppressors (disbelievers)" [EMQ 5: 51]

Allah will never forgive the one who allies with the kuffar against Muslims, Allah (swt) says,

"Those who have a weak heart will hurry to them (and start to praise them) and say, "we feared a calamity might come to us," and Allah may bring the conquest or change their situation… they should blame nobody but themselves …" [EMQ 5: 52]

Allah (swt) explained further to us, that it is not only to ally with them that is forbidden, but even to support them in any way. He (swt) informed us that the support is Muwalaat,

"The awliyaa’ who give support …" [EMQ Shura: 46]

So if you support them in their kufr or against Muslims, you are awliyaa’, you are allied to them and kafir, that is why ibn Hazm said after quoting this ayah,


Imam Shafi’i said,

"If anyone (knowingly) sells to the kuffar stone or wood for building their churches, they are kafir."

Ibn Taymiyyah said,

"Anybody who supports the kuffar on their kufr or against Muslims, they are kafir." [Majmou’ Al Fattawa]

The Muslims readily attack and condemn other Muslims because they commit terrorist acts, yet they do not know THAT TERRORISM IS OBLIGATORY IN ISLAM against the enemy of Allah. Neither do they believe in terrorism nor do they know that the kuffar are our enemies and the enemies of Allah; resulting that they ally with them against other Muslims. In this time when all the kufr is spread and all the batil is prevalent, when people are leaving the deen of Islam without to know, it is essential for there to be Muslims rising to command good and forbid evil, to address and elaborate these issues for the people so that the Haq may prevail and confront the batil. (Source; capital and underline emphasis ours; see also the other articles in their section on Jihad)

This again shows that Abualrub’s fight is not with the Craig Winns or the Daniel Pipes. He should really be fighting and debating men like Osama bin Laden, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, al-Qaeda etc. Instead of wasting his time writing rebuttals to Winn and others, he should be producing articles on his website where he exposes Osama bin Laden and challenges his interpretation of Islam.

Abualrub will have a problem exposing Osama bin Laden and the others since, as we will shortly see, an accurate reading of both the Quran and authentic Muslim sources prove that the terrorists’ interpretation of the Quran is correct.

4. Abualrub’s Red Herrings and Smokescreens

Abualrub insisted that Winn show him where in the Quran or prophetic Sunna does it teach to kill non-combatants, women, children etc. To quote his own words again:

… In vain, Jalal Abualrub repeatedly challenged Craig Winn, a self professed ‘expert’ on Islam, to quote a single unequivocal Quranic or Prophetic Statement legislating deliberate, violent targeting of non-combatant men, women, children, priests or rabbis, committing suicide, destroying places of worship or hijacking airplanes and flying them into buildings …

Abualrub isn’t the first one to try and use smoke and mirror tactics in order to evade dealing with the implications of the Quranic teachings. Another alleged Muslim scholar, Dr. Jamal Badawi, also throws out red herrings and seeks to confuse the issue with his 1 million dollar challenge. Basically, Badawi argues that the words holy war never appear in the Quran and challenges anyone to prove him wrong (*).

Much like Dr. Badawi, Abualrub seeks to confuse and mislead his audience into thinking that if neither the Quran nor a Prophetic statement explicitly mentions a specific act, or describes something in the specific way that Abualrub wants, then this means that such acts are not condoned within Islam. Since Abualrub’s tactic is very similar to Badawi’s, our response to him will also be along similar lines.

Abualrub definitely knows that the Quran teaches various concepts even though a particular word or exact terminology is not found in the book. To illustrate our point, and expose the utter futility of Abualrub’s reasoning, we offer the following counter challenges:

1) One of Abualrub’s most beloved subjects is "Tauhid" or monotheism. We challenge him to produce texts from the Quran and the so-called Prophetic statements where the following phrases appear:

a) The actual word "Tauhid".

b) The three classifications or subsets of Tauhid:

tauhid al-rububiyyah,
tauhid al-uluhiyya,
ibaadah, tauhid al-asma wa sifat.

2) We challenge him to provide one unambiguous, explicit statement from the Quran or the Sahih Ahadith condemning lesbianism.

3) We ask Abualrub to produce a passage from the Quran and the Sahih ahadith where bestiality is explicitly condemned by name.

For more on the issue of Islam, lesbianism, bestiality etc., please read the following Muslim publication.

4) We also challenge him to present to us an explicit statement(s) from the Quran delineating the exact breadth and length of the Quran, i.e. how many surahs and verses does the Quran say it contains.

5) We further challenge him to quote the supposed words of Jesus in the Quran where Muhammad quotes Christ as explicitly saying that he is not the Son of God and that he did not come to die on the cross.

We could go on and on with our challenges, but these should suffice. Using Abualrub’s logic, we are forced to conclude that since these exact phrases and statements do not appear in the Quran, the Quran therefore does not teach or condemn these things.

Since Abualrub has a habit of distorting what we actually say, opting to attack straw men and throw out red herrings, we want to clarify our challenges. We are not asking for implicit statements nor inferences drawn from statements which do not directly condemn or mention the points raised in our challenges. We are challenging him to produce explicit references which explicitly condemn or mention the very questions we are raising here, i.e. an explicit condemnation of lesbianism by referring to it by name etc.

The above should highlight the fact that Abualrub’s challenge to Winn is quite desperate. We can use the same line of argumentation to either prove or disprove many things that Abularub takes for granted are either part of the Islamic faith or rejected by it.

For the rebuttal to Dr. Badawi, please read the following papers:

With the foregoing behind us we can now focus our attention on what the Quran truly teaches about murdering non-combatants, specifically women and children.

5. The Quran on Waging War

In this section we will seek to prove that the Quran permits the killing of non-combatants. The fact of the matter is that there isn’t a single statement in the Quran which forbids the killing of old men, women, children, rabbis or priests. A careful reading of the Quran actually shows that Muslims can indeed fight against all these classes of people since the Quran uses inclusive language.

We will let the Quran speak in its own language, and not seek to impose upon it language and concepts that are foreign to it.

Fight in the way of Allah against those who fight against you, but begin not hostilities. Lo! Allah loveth not aggressors. And slay them wherever ye find them, and drive them out of the places whence they drove you out, for persecution is worse than slaughter. And fight not with them at the Inviolable Place of Worship until they first attack you there, but if they attack you (there) then slay them. Such is the reward of disbelievers. But if they desist, then lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. And fight them until persecution is no more, and religion is for Allah. But if they desist, then let there be no hostility except against wrong-doers. The forbidden month for the forbidden month, and forbidden things in retaliation. And one who attacketh you, attack him in like manner as he attacked you. Observe your duty to Allah, and know that Allah is with those who ward off (evil). S. 2:190-194 Pickthall

The above text doesn’t say fight only the men who fought you, but do not harm their women and children or old men. The language is inclusive, i.e. fight ALL those who fight you whether they be men, women or children.

The readers can easily see the soundness of our exegesis by simply pondering on the following point: According to Islamic sources, did the polytheists drive out only the Muslim men, or did they also drive out women and children?

For this reason did We prescribe to the children of Israel that WHOEVER slays a SOUL, unless it be for manslaughter or for mischief in the land, it is as though he slew all men; and whoever keeps it alive, it is as though he kept alive all men; and certainly Our apostles came to them with clear arguments, but even after that many of them certainly act extravagantly in the land. The punishment of those who wage war against Allah and His apostle and strive to make mischief in the land is only this, that they should be murdered or crucified or their hands and their feet should be cut off on opposite sides or they should be imprisoned; this shall be as a disgrace for them in this world, and in the hereafter they shall have a grievous chastisement, Except those who repent before you have them in your power; so know that Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. S. 5:32-33 Shakir

The language here is inclusive, i.e. whoever slays a soul obviously includes woman, children, old or young, free or slave etc. The text also says that those who wage war or cause mischief should be punished, which obviously encompasses women and children. Again, the text doesn’t say only the men who wage war or strive for mischief should be punished.

An acquittal, from God and His Messenger, unto THE IDOLATERS with whom you made covenant: ‘Journey freely in the land for four months; and know that you cannot frustrate the will of God, and that God degrades the unbelievers.’ A proclamation, from God and His Messenger, UNTO MANKIND on the day of the Greater Pilgrimage: ‘God is quit, and His Messenger, of THE IDOLATERS. So if you repent, that will be better for you; but if you turn your backs; know that you cannot frustrate the will of God. And give thou good tidings to THE UNBELIEVERS of a painful chastisement; excepting those of THE IDOLATERS with whom you made covenant, then they failed. You naught neither lent support to any man against you. With them fulfil your covenant till their term; surely God loves THE GODFEARING. Then, when the sacred months are drawn away, SLAY THE IDOLATERS wherever you find them, and take them, and confine them, and lie in wait for them at every place of ambush. But if they repent, and perform the prayer, and pay the alms, then let them go their way; God is All-forgiving, All-compassionate. And if ANY OF THE IDOLATERS seeks of thee protection, grant him protection till he hears the words of God; then do thou convey him to his place of security -- that, because they are A PEOPLE who do not know. How should THE IDOLATERS have a covenant with God and His Messenger? -- excepting those with whom you made covenant at the Holy Mosque; so long as they go straight with you, do you go straight with them; surely God loves the godfearing. How? If they get the better of you, they will not observe towards you any bond or treaty, giving you satisfaction with their mouths but in their hearts refusing; and the most of them are ungodly. They have sold the signs of God for a small price, and have barred from His way; truly evil is that they have been doing, observing neither bond nor treaty towards a believer; they are the transgressors. Yet if they repent, and perform the prayer, and pay the alms, then they are your brothers in religion; and We distinguish the signs for a people who know. But if they break their oaths after their covenant and thrust at your religion, then fight the leaders of unbelief; they have no sacred oaths; haply they will give over. Will you not fight A PEOPLE who broke their oaths and purposed to expel the Messenger, beginning the first time against you? Are you afraid of them? You would do better to be afraid of God, if you are believers. Fight them, and God will chastise them at your hands and degrade them, and He will help you against them, and bring healing to the breasts of a people who believe, and He will remove the rage within their hearts; and God turns towards whomsoever He will; God is All-knowing, All-wise Or did you suppose you would be left in peace, and God knows not as yet those of you who have struggled, and taken not -- apart from God and His Messenger and the believers -- any intimate? God is aware of what you do. It is not for THE IDOLATERS to inhabit God's places of worship, witnessing against themselves unbelief; those -- their works have failed them, and in the Fire they shall dwell forever. Only he shall inhabit God's places of worship who believes in God and the Last Day, and performs the prayer, and pays the alms, and fears none but God alone; it may be that those will be among the guided. S. 9:1-18 Arberry

The above passage addresses the idolaters, the people, mankind etc. The text says that the idolaters are not to approach the places of worship, which obviously includes women, children, old, young, free, slave and so on. The obvious implication of the passage is that the Muslims are to fight and ambush ALL the idolaters, not just their men. Muslims, according to these verses, are to chastise and degrade all the unbelievers until they repent and become Muslim.

Then will Allah after this turn (mercifully) to whom He pleases, and Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. O you who believe! THE IDOLATERS are nothing but unclean, so they shall not approach the Sacred Mosque after this year; and if you fear poverty then Allah will enrich you out of His grace if He please; surely Allah is Knowing Wise. Fight THOSE WHO DO NOT BELIEVE in Allah, nor in the latter day, nor do they prohibit what Allah and His Apostle have prohibited, nor follow the religion of truth, out of those who have been given the Book, until they pay the tax in acknowledgment of superiority and they are in a state of subjection. And the Jews say: Uzair is the son of Allah; and the Christians say: The Messiah is the son of Allah; these are the words of their mouths; they imitate the saying of those who disbelieved before; may Allah destroy them; how they are turned away! THEY have taken their doctors of law and their monks for lords besides Allah, and (also) the Messiah son of Marium AND THEY WERE ENJOINED THAT THEY SHOULD SERVE one God only, there is no god but He; far from His glory be what THEY set up (with Him). They desire to put out the light of Allah with their mouths, and Allah will not consent save to perfect His light, though THE UNBELEIVERS are averse. He it is Who sent His Apostle with guidance and the religion of truth, that He might cause it to prevail over all religions, though THE POLYTHEISTS may be averse. O YOU WHO BELIEVE! most surely many of the doctors of law and the monks eat away the property of men falsely, and turn (them) from Allah's way; and (as for) those who hoard up gold and silver and do not spend it in Allah's way, announce to them a painful chastisement, On the day when it shall be heated in the fire of hell, then their foreheads and their sides and their backs shall be branded with it; this is what you hoarded up for yourselves, therefore taste what you hoarded. Surely the number of months with Allah is twelve months in Allah's ordinance since the day when He created the heavens and the earth, of these four being sacred; that is the right reckoning; therefore be not unjust to yourselves regarding them, and fight THE POLYTHEISTS ALL TOGETHER as they fight you all together; and know that Allah is with those who guard (against evil). Postponing (of the sacred month) is only an addition in unbelief, wherewith those WHO DISBELIEVE are led astray, violating it one year and keeping it sacred another, that they may agree in the number (of months) that Allah has made sacred, and thus violate what Allah has made sacred; the evil of their doings is made fairseeming to them; and Allah does not guide THE UNBELIEVING PEOPLE. S. 9:27-37 Shakir

All idolaters are unclean which, in this context, includes Jews and Christians. They all must be fought until they convert or pay the jizya in order to feel humiliated. The text even says to fight the polytheists altogether without any distinction.

Again, unless Abualrub wishes to contend that only the men are unclean and will go to hell for their disbelief and idolatry, it should be clear even to him that the language of these texts are inclusive: the texts are addressed to the entire group of idolaters, be they men or women, young or old, without discrimination.

It should be clear by now, that Abualrub’s demand to show him even one statement from the Quran or from the mouth of Muhammad that explicitly demands or permits the killing of women and children is a smoke screen. The Quran clearly speaks of fighting and killing ALL unbelievers which includes men and women, old and young. The Quran never excludes the women or children from this command. There is no need for a specific command to kill women and children, since they are already included in the general command.

The question must be put the other way around: Why does the Quran never command to spare and protect the women and children after it had commanded to fight and kill all the idolaters?

Here are a few more passages which use inclusive language:

ALLAH has promised to believers, men and women, Gardens underneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide, and delightful dwelling-places in Gardens of Eternity. And the pleasure of ALLAH is the greatest of all. That is the supreme triumph. O Prophet! strive hard against the disbelievers and the Hypocrites. And be firm against them. Their abode is Hell, and evil destination it is. They swear by ALLAH that they said nothing, but they did certainly utter the word of disbelief, and disbelieved after they had embraced Islam. And they designed what they could not attain. And they cherished enmity against believers only because ALLAH and HIS Messenger had enriched them out of HIS bounty. So if they repent, it will be better for them; but if they turn away, ALLAH will punish them with a grievous punishment in this world and the Hereafter, and they shall have neither friend nor helper in the earth. And among them are those who made a covenant with ALLAH, saying, `If HE give us of HIS bounty, we would most surely give alms and be of the virtuous.' But when HE gave them out of HIS bounty, they became niggardly of it, and turned away in aversion. So HE requited them with hypocrisy which shall last in their hearts until the day when they shall meet HIM, because they broke their promise, and because they lied. Know they not that ALLAH knows their hidden thoughts as well as their secret counsels and that ALLAH knows full well all unseen things? These hypocrites are those who find fault with such of the believers as give freely in charity and with such as find nothing to give save the earnings of their toil. So they deride them. ALLAH shall punish them for their derision, and for them is a grievous punishment. Ask thou forgiveness for them, or ask thou not forgiveness for them; even if thou ask forgiveness for them seventy times, ALLAH will never forgive them. That is because they disbelieved in ALLAH and HIS Messenger. And ALLAH guides not the perfidious people. Those who contrived to be left behind rejoice in their sitting at home behind the Messenger of ALLAH, and were averse to striving with their wealth and their persons in the cause of ALLAH. And they said, `Go not forth in the heat.' Say, `The fire of Hell is more intense in heat.' If only they could understand. They should laugh little and weep much as a reward for that which they used to earn. And if ALLAH bring thee back to a party of them, they ask of thee leave to go forth to fight, say then, `You shall never go forth with me, and shall never fight an enemy with me. You chose to sit at home the first time, so sit now with those who remain behind.' And never pray thou for any of them that dies, nor stand by his grave; for they disbelieved in ALLAH and HIS Messenger and died while they were disobedient. And let not their riches and their children excite thy wonder; ALLAH only intends to punish them therewith in this world and that their souls may depart while they are disbelievers. And when a Surah is revealed, enjoining, `Believe in ALLAH and strive in HIS cause in company with HIS Messenger,' men of wealth an affluence among them ask leave of thee and say, `Leave us that we be with those who sit at home. They prefer to be with the womenfolk, who remain behind at home and their hearts are sealed so that they understand not. S. 9:72-87 Sher Ali

It was not proper for the people of Medina and those around them from among the Arabs of the desert that they should have remained behind the Messenger of ALLAH or that they should have preferred their own lives to his. That is because there afflicts them neither thirst nor fatigue nor hunger in the way of ALLAH, nor do they tread a track which enrages the disbelievers, nor do they gain an advantage over the enemy but there is written down for them a good work on account of it. Surely, ALLAH suffers not the reward of those who do good, to be lost. And they spend not any sum, small or great, nor do they traverse a valley, but it is written down for them, among their good works, that ALLAH may give them the best reward for what they did. It is not possible for THE BELIEVERS to go forth all together. Why, then, does not a party from every section of them go forth that they may become well-versed in religion, and that they may warn their people when they return to them, so that they may guard against evil. O ye who believe! FIGHT SUCH OF THE DISBELIEVERS AS ARE NEAR TO YOU AND LET THEM FIND HARDNESS IN YOU; and know that ALLAH is with the righteous. S. 9:120-123 Sher Ali

Unless Abularub wants to argue that the promises of reward and the threat of punishment are limited solely to the men, then it should be clear enough to see that these verses include every member of that specific group.

In other words, these passages lead us to (un)safely assume that when the Quran speaks of believers, disbelievers, idolaters etc., without any qualification, then we are to infer from this that it is including all of them, whether men or women, old or young.

But this causes major problems for Abualrub’s challenge. The above citations speak of fighting, subduing, ambushing Jews, Christians, unbelievers, idolaters and so on, without any qualification. Therefore, if we were to base our understanding of Jihad on the Quran alone then we must conclude that Muslims can fight and kill all unbelievers and all idolaters, including non-combatants, like women and children and the elderly.

The Quran provides further substantiation for our exegesis. There are places in the Quran where women and children are cursed, and where a young boy is even killed:

If any one disputes in this matter with thee, now after (full) knowledge Hath come to thee, say: "Come! let us gather together, - our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves: Then let us earnestly pray, and invoke the curse of God on those who lie!" S. 3:61 Y. Ali

Muhammad invokes Allah’s curse not just on the men who supposedly lied, whether Muslims or not, but also their women/wives and children! According to the commentators this verse was given to challenge a Christian deputation from Najran. The deputation consisted only of men, there being no women or children accompanying them.

In light of this, why would Muhammad even need to include the wives or children of the Christians when they had nothing to do with it? Why does he specifically challenge them to (go home and) also bring their wives and their children? Does this not show that Muhammad had no qualms with cursing or condemning women and children?

"And remember the time when Moses said to his young companion, `I will not cease pursuing my course until I reach the junction of the two seas, though I may have to journey on for ages. But when they reached the place where the two seas met, they forgot their fish and it made its way into the sea going away quickly. And when they had gone beyond that place, he said to his young companion, `Bring us our morning meal. Surely, we have suffered much fatigue on account of this journey of ours.' He replied, `Didst thou see, when we betook ourselves to the rock for rest and I forgot the fish - and none but Satan caused me to forget to mention it to thee - it took its way into the sea in a marvelous manner? He said, `That is what we have been seeking.' So they both returned, retracing their footsteps. Then they found a servant of OURS, upon whom WE had bestowed mercy from US, and whom WE had taught knowledge from Ourselves… So they journeyed on till when they met a young boy; he slew him. Moses said, ‘What! hast thou slain an innocent person without his having slain anyone! Surely, thou hast done a hideous thing’ ... ‘And as for the youth, his parents were believers, and we feared lest on growing up he should involve them into trouble through rebellion and disbelief;’" S. 18:60-65, 74, 80 Sher Ali

An alleged slave of Allah kills a young, innocent boy on the grounds that he may have caused his parents trouble in the future!

In fact, this text served as a basis for allowing Muslims to kill children whom they suspected would turn out to be disbelievers!

This tradition has been narrated by the same authority (Yazid b. Hurmus) through a different chain of transmitters with the following difference in the elucidation of one of the points raised by Najda in his letter to Ibn Abbas: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) used not to kill the children, so thou shouldst not kill them unless you could know WHAT KHADIR HAD KNOWN about the child he killed, or you could distinguish between a child who would grow up to he a believer (and a child who would grow up to be a non-believer), so that you killed the (prospective) non-believer and left the (prospective) believer aside. (Sahih Muslim, Book 019, Number 4457)

Khadir is the name traditionally given to this unnamed companion of Moses, the one that killed the child.

How disturbing. Muhammad gives Muslims the leeway to use their fallible discretion to determine whether a child may grow up to be an unbeliever. This in turn could result in the child being murdered on the mere grounds of suspicion!

We will have more to say about the teachings of the Islamic narrations regarding the killing of women and children in our second article.

Allah also condemned an old woman during the time of Lot:

He said, 'Truly I am a detester of what you do. My Lord, deliver me and my people from that they do.' So We delivered him and his people all together, save an old woman among those that tarried; S. 26:169-171 Arberry

According to other passages, this old woman was Lot’s wife:

So We delivered him and his family, except his wife; We decreed she should be of those that tarried. S. 27:57 Arberry

Hence, these examples conclusively show that Allah is not above cursing and killing older people, women and children.

Therefore, the inevitable conclusion we arrive at when we combine all these citations together is that the Quran permits, and even commands, Muslims to fight all non-combatants, which clearly includes women and children, until they either repent or are subdued.

There is another line of evidence which indirectly supports the above conclusion, the fact that the Quran doesn’t expressly prohibit the killing of women and children. It is not as if the Quran couldn’t have made this explicit prohibition since in many places it condemns the unjust murder or killing of children:

Losers are they who slay their children in folly, without knowledge, and have forbidden what God has provided them, forging against God; they have gone astray, and are not right-guided. S. 6:140 Arberry

Say: Come I will recite what your Lord has forbidden to you -- (remember) that you do not associate anything with Him and show kindness to your parents, and do not slay your children for (fear of) poverty -- We provide for you and for them -- and do not draw nigh to indecencies, those of them which are apparent and those which are concealed, and do not kill the soul which Allah has forbidden except for the requirements of justice; this He has enjoined you with that you may understand. S. 6:151 Shakir

And when to one of them is conveyed the tidings of the birth of a female, his face darkens with inward suppressed grief; He hides himself from the people because of the bad news he has had. Shall he keep it in spite of disgrace or shall he bury it in the dust? Verily, evil is that which they judge. S. 16:58-59 Sher Ali

Surely your Lord makes plentiful the means of subsistence for whom He pleases and He straightens (them); surely He is ever Aware of, Seeing, His servants.

And do not kill your children for fear of poverty; We give them sustenance and yourselves (too); surely to kill them is a great wrong. S. 17:30-31 Shakir

And when the girl-child that was buried alive is asked For what sin she was slain, S. 81:8-9 Pickthall

The Quran explicitly forbids Muslims to kill their own children, but never forbids the killing of the children of the idolaters. Since the Quran mentions the unjust killing and murder of innocent children, be it the cruel act of burying infant girls alive etc., it could have just as easily commanded Muslims not to kill them during Jihad. But the Quran fails to expressly prohibit the vicious murdering of non-combatants, even though it could have done so.

Now Abualrub may contend (much like he did against Winn) that the verses of the Quran refer to defensive Jihad, to fighting those who fought and attacked the Muslims. This is only partially correct since some of the first verses commanding Muslims to fight dealt with a defensive situation. But even those battles were actually precipitated by Muhammad’s caravan raids, specifically when he allowed the Muslims to rob a Meccan caravan which led to the battle of Badr. When Muhammad later amassed enough power and wealth his greed eventually led him to engage in offensive battles, offensive Jihad, against peoples and groups who never even bothered or threatened the safety of Muslims.

Second, Islam considers mocking, criticizing etc. as fighting against Islam and are grounds for being killed or fought. Thus, Muslims can wage war against those who haven’t taken up arms to kill them physically if these persons have challenged or criticized Muhammad and his religion.

More importantly, in a war not all men are combatants either and yet the Quran doesn't distinguish between men who fight with the sword and the other men who did not. As an example of this is when Muhammad eliminates the Banu Qurayza, for instance, he kills all the men, even though this tribe had not actually fought him. Muhammad alleged that they conspired against him, that they WANTED to fight, but they never did. Yet, he still kills all their men, all of them non-combatants (cf. this section). We will further elaborate on this point in the second part of our rebuttal.

In his debate, Abualrub justified Muhammad’s assaults on caravans by claiming that the Meccans had stolen the property and homes of the Muslims by driving them out. Abualrub’s response is wrong since the Meccans didn’t instigate the persecution against the Muslims; Muhammad did by attacking and mocking their gods and religion. The Meccans begged Muhammad to stop but he refused.

Even if jihad was in some sense defensive in the beginning (though the attack was often provoked by the Muslims themselves), its final definition included clearly the offensive and aggressive aspect. After all, it was the Muslims who initiated offensive battles against Mut'ah, Hunayn, Tabuk, Iraq, Iran, Egypt and North Africa.

The following Islamic narrations clearly show that it was Muhammad who initiated agressions against rulers who had done nothing to him:

Narrated Abdullah bin Abbas:

Allah's Apostle wrote to Caesar and invited him to Islam and sent him his letter with Dihya Al-Kalbi whom Allah's Apostle ordered to hand it over to the Governor of Busra who would forward it to Caesar. Caesar as a sign of gratitude to Allah, had walked from Hims to Ilya (i.e. Jerusalem) when Allah had granted Him victory over the Persian forces. So, when the letter of Allah's Apostle reached Caesar, he said after reading it, 'Seek for me any one of his people! (Arabs of Quraish tribe) if present here, in order to ask him about Allah's Apostle... Abu Sufyan added, "Caesar then asked for the letter of Allah's Apostle and it was read. Its contents were:--

"In the name of Allah, the most Beneficent, the most Merciful (This letter is) from Muhammad, the slave of Allah, and His Apostle, to Heraculius, the Ruler of the Byzantine. Peace be upon the followers of guidance. Now then, I invite you to Islam (i.e. surrender to Allah), embrace Islam AND YOU WILL BE SAFE; embrace Islam and Allah will bestow on you a double reward. But if you reject this invitation of Islam, YOU SHALL BE RESPONSIBLE FOR MISGUIDING THE PEASANTS (i.e. your nation). O people of the Scriptures! Come to a word common to you and us and you, that we worship. None but Allah, and that we associate nothing in worship with Him; and that none of us shall take others as Lords besides Allah. Then if they turn away, say: Bear witness that we are (they who have surrendered (unto Him). (3.64) (Sahih Al-Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 52, Number 191)

{Note- This narration contains distortions and exaggerations, some of which are examined here.}

It has been narrated on the authority of Anas that the Prophet of Allah (may peace be upon him) wrote to Chosroes (King of Persia), Caesar (Emperor of Rome), Negus (King of Abyssinia) AND EVERY (other) DESPOT inviting them to Allah, the Exalted. And this Negus was not the one for whom the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) had said the funeral prayers. (Sahih Muslim, Book 019, Number 4382)

Ibn Ishaq, one of the earliest biographers of Muhammad, provides an example of Muslims attacking an innocent Christian ruler who hadn't bothered Muhammad but who was then forced to pay the Jizyah or taxation:

Then the apostle summoned Khalid b. al-Walid and sent him to Ukaydir at Duma. Ukaydir b. 'Abdu'l-Malik was a man of Kinda who was a ruler of Duma; he was Christian. The apostle told Khalid that he would find him hunting wild cows. Khalid went off until he came within sight of his fort. It was a summer night with a bright moon and Ukaydir was on the roof with his wife. The cows were rubbing their horns against the gate of the fort all the night. His wife asked him if he had ever known anything of the kind in the past, and urged him to go after them. He called for his horse, and when it was saddled he rode off with a number of his family, among them a brother called Hassan. And they were riding the apostle's cavalry fell in with them and seized him and killed his brother. Ukaydir was wearing a gown of brocade covered with gold. Khalid stripped him of this and sent it to the apostle before he brought him to him.

'Asim b. 'Umar b. Qatada from Anas b. Malik said: I saw Ukaydir's gown when it was brought to the apostle. The Muslims were feeling it and admiring it and the apostle said, 'Do you admire this? By Him in whose hand is my life the napkins of Sa'd b. Mu'adh in Paradise are better than this.'

Then Khalid brought Ukaydir to the apostle who spared his life and made peace with him on condition that he paid the poll tax. Then he released him and he returned to his town. (Ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasulullah (The Life of Muhammad), translated by Alfred Guillaume [Oxford University Press, Karachi, tenth impression 1995], pp. 607-608)

Not only was this Christian man wrongly assaulted but he had to also sadly witness the brutal murder of his brother by blood thirsty Muslims. This clearly exemplifies the offensive nature of Jihad.

Islamicist Robert Spencer sums up the situation best:

Before the Prophet had been dead ten years, Muslim armies had taken Syria, Egypt, and Persia. Muslim armies conquered Damascus in 635, only three years after Muhammad's death; substantial portions of Iraq in 636; Jerusalem in 638; Caesarea in 641; and Armenia in 643. The conquest of Egypt took place in the same period. The Muslims also won decisive victories over the Byzantines at Sufetula in Tunisia in 647, opening up North Africa; and over the Persians at Nihavand in 642. By 709 they had complete control of North Africa; by 711 they had subdued Spain and were moving into France. Muslim forces first besieged "Caesar's city" of Muhammad's promise, Constantinople, for a full year starting in August 716; but despite repeated subsequent attempts, it would not fall to them for another 700 years. Meanwhile, Sicily fell in 827. By 846 Rome was in danger of being captured by Muslim invaders; repulsed, they "sacked the cathedrals of St. Peter beside the Vatican and of St. Paul outside the walls, and desecrated the graves of the pontiffs."

These were not defensive wars. The Muslims in Arabia were not threatened by either of the two great powers bordering on their lands, Byzantium and Persia, unless one counts the very presence of large neighboring empires to be a threat. These powers were too consumed with each other to pay much attention to the rise of Muhammad's empire.

Nor were they Arab wars; after the conquests, the victors constructed a society based on Muslim, not Arab, hegemony. A convert to Islam from the conquered peoples enjoyed rights far greater than those granted to those of his countrymen who did not convert. The Muslim armies considered themselves to be advancing in the spirit dictated by Muhammad accept Islam or face war. (Spencer, Onward Muslim Soldiers: How Jihad Still Threatens America and the West [Regnery Publishing, Inc., 2003], pp. 168-169)

Spencer goes on to show what Muslims did to India, and contrasts the Hindu code of war with that of the Muslims:

... They pressed into what is now Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India from the eighth century on, making slow but steady progress. According to the Hindu historian Sita Ram Goel, by 1206, the Muslim invaders had conquered "the Punjab, Sindh, Delhi, and the Doab up to Kanauj." Later waves expanded these holdings to the Ganges and beyond.

Sita Ram Goel concedes that "India before advent of Islamic imperialism was not exactly a zone of peace... But in all their wars, the Hindus had observed some time-honored conventions sanctioned by the Sastras. The Brahmins and the Bhikshus were never molested. The cows were never killed. The temples were never touched. The chastity of women was never violated. the noncombatants were never killed or captured. A human habitation was never attacked unless it was a fort. The civil population was never plundered. War booty was an unknown item in the calculations of conquerors." In contrast, says the historian, "Islamic imperialism came with a different code - the Sunnah [tradition] of the Prophet. It required its warriors to fall upon the helpless civil population after a decisive victory had been won on the battlefield. It required them to sack and burn down villages and towns after the defenders had died fighting or had fled. The cows , the Brahmins, and the Bhikshus invited their special attention in mass murders of noncombatants. The temples and monasteries were their special targets in an orgy of pillage and arson. Those whom they did not kill, they captured and sold as slaves. The magnitude of the booty looted even from the bodies of the dead, was a measure of the success of the military mission. And they did all this as mujahids (holy warriors) and ghazis (kafir [unbeliever]-killers) in the service of Allah and his Last Prophet."

Of course, when Hindus fought Hindus they observed these restraints because they shared the same values: both sides revered the same temples, monasteries, and, for that matter, cows. But Sita Ram Goel is right that the actions of the Muslims were in accord with Islamic law and precedent; these actions can't be attributed solely to attempts to end resistance and demoralize the locals. The Muslim invaders' behavior was consistent with the example of the Prophet who once enjoined of his followers "to attack Ubna in the morning and burn the place." ...

Hindu temples and monasteries would have been particular targets of the Muslims because they were considered places of idolatry. Historian K.S. Lal explains that Muslim conquerors in India "destroyed temples because it is enjoined in their scriptures. In the history of islam, iconoclasm and razing other peoples' temples are central to the faith. They derive their justification and validity from the Quranic revelation and the Prophet's Sunna or practice." Consequently, "thousands of Hindu shrines and edifices disappeared in northern India by the time of Sikander Lodi and Babur" - that is, the early sixteenth century. Lal notes that many mosques and other Muslim structures were built "from the debris of Hindu temples." He quotes historian Will Durant, "We can never know from looking at India today, what grandeur and beauty she once possessed." (Ibid., pp. 169-170, 171-172)

Talking about the Muslim invasion of Egypt and the subsequent replacement of the Coptic language with Arabic, Spencer refers to one 12th century Coptic monk's view of the Muslim invaders:

Coptic was indeed replaced by Arabic, but the transition was made not by nature, but by war. One twelfth-century Coptic monk, speaking almost five hundred years after the Muslim conquest of Egypt, still found it within him to assert, "We are the masters of this country, both from the point of view of population as well as for the land tax. The Muslims took it from us, they appropriated it by force and violence, and it is from our hands that they seized power." He also referred to "the massacre that they wrought on our kings and our ruling families during their conquest." In the fourteenth century, an Egyptian Muslim writer noted, "the Copts declare that this country still belongs to them, and that the Muslim evicted them from it unlawfully." (Ibid., p. 176)

Supporting Spencer is Sunni Muslim commentator Ibn Kathir. In his comments on Sura 9:123, Ibn Kathir has no shame admitting the offensive nature of Jihad and how Muslims implemented it in expanding Islam beyond Arabia:

The Order for Jihad against the Disbelievers, the Closest, then the Farthest Areas

Allah commands the believers to fight the disbelievers, the closest in area to the Islamic state, then the farthest. This is why the Messenger of Allah started fighting the idolators in the Arabian Peninsula. When he finished with them and Allah gave him control over Makkah, Al-Madinah, At-Ta'if, Yemen, Yamamah, Hajr, Khaybar, Hadramawt and other Arab provinces, and the various Arab tribes entered Islam in large crowds, he then started fighting the People of the Scriptures. He began preparations to fight the Romans who were the closest in area to the Arabian Peninsula, and as such, had the most right to be called to Islam, especially since they were from the People of the Scriptures. The Prophet marched until he reached Tabuk and went back because of the extreme hardship, little rain and little supplies. This battle occurred on the ninth year after his Hijrah. In the tenth year, the Messenger of Allah was busy with the Farewell Hajj. The Messenger died eighty-one days after he returned from that Hajj, Allah chose him for what He had prepared for him [in Paradise]. After his death, his executor, friend, and Khalifah, Abu Bakr As-Siddiq, may Allah be pleased with him, became the leader. At that time, the religion came under attack and would have been defeated, if it had not been for the fact that Allah gave the religion firmness through Abu Bakr, who established its basis and made its foundations firm. He brought those who strayed from the religion back to it, and made those who reverted from Islam return. He took the Zakah from the evil people who did not want to pay it, and explained the truth to those who were unaware of it. On behalf of the Prophet , Abu Bakr delivered what he was entrusted with. Then, he started preparing the Islamic armies to fight the Roman cross worshippers, and the Persian fire worshippers. By the blessing of his mission, Allah opened the lands for him and brought down Caesar and Kisra and those who obeyed them among the servants. Abu Bakr spent their treasures in the cause of Allah, just as the Messenger of Allah had foretold would happen. This mission continued after Abu Bakr at the hands of he whom Abu Bakr chose to be his successor, Al-Faruq, the Martyr of the Mihrab, Abu Hafs, `Umar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him. With `Umar, Allah HUMILIATED the disbelievers, suppressed the tyrants and hypocrites, and opened THE EASTERN AND WESTERN PARTS OF THE WORLD. The treasures of various countries were brought to `Umar from near and far provinces, and he divided them according to the legitimate and accepted method. `Umar then died as a martyr after he lived a praise worthy life. Then, the Companions among the Muhajirin and Ansar agreed to choose after `Umar, `Uthman bin `Affan, Leader of the faithful and Martyr of the House, may Allah be pleased with him. During `Uthman's reign, Islam wore its widest garment and Allah's unequivocal proof was established in various parts of the world OVER THE NECKS OF THE SERVANTS. Islam appeared in the eastern and western parts of the world and Allah's Word was elevated and His religion apparent. The pure religion reached its deepest aims against Allah's enemies, and whenever Muslims overcame an Ummah, they moved to the next one, and then the next one, crushing the tyranical evil doers. They did this in reverence to Allah's statement, ...

<O you who believe! Fight those of the disbelievers who are close to you,> Allah said next, ...

<and let them find harshness in you>, meaning, let the disbelievers find harshness in you against them in battle. The complete believer is he who is kind to his believing brother, and harsh with his disbelieving enemy. Allah said in other Ayah, ...

<Allah will bring a people whom He will love and they will love Him; humble towards the believers, stern towards the disbelievers...>[5:54], ...

<Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. And those who are with him are severe against the disbelievers, and merciful among themselves.>[48:29], and, ...

<O Prophet! Strive hard against the disbelievers and the hypocrites, and be harsh against them.>[9:73] Allah said, ...

<And know that Allah is with those who have Taqwa>, meaning, fight the disbelievers and trust in Allah knowing that Allah is with you if you fear and obey Him. This was the case in the first three blessed generations of Islam, the best members of this Ummah. Since they were firm on the religion and reached an unsurpassed level of obedience to Allah, they consistently prevailed over their enemies. During that era, victories were abundant, and enemies were ever more in a state of utter loss and degradation. However, after the turmoil began, desires and divisions became prevalent between various Muslim kings, the enemies were eager to attack the outposts of Islam and marched into its territory without much opposition. Then, the Muslim kings were too busy with their enmity for each other. The disbelievers then marched to the capital cities of the Islamic states, after gaining control over many of its areas, in addition to entire Islamic lands. Verily, ownership of all affairs is with Allah in the beginning and in the end. Whenever a just Muslim king stood up and obeyed Allah's orders, all the while trusting in Allah, Allah helped him regain control over some Muslim lands and took back from the enemy what was compatible to his obedience and support to Allah. We ask Allah to help the Muslims gain control over the forelocks of His disbeliever enemies and to raise high the word of Muslims OVER ALL LANDS. Verily, Allah is Most Generous, Most Giving. (Source; underline and capital emphasis ours)

Some of Abualrub's Salafi Muslim brothers had this to say about offensive war:

One of the strangest things to note is that we are living in a time when some of the Muslims are embarrassed to quote the verses and ahaadeeth on jihad in front of their kaafir friends. Their faces turn red because they are too shy to mention the rulings on the jizyah, slavery and killing prisoners of war. They wish that they could erase these verses and ahaadeeth from the Qur'aan and Sunnah so that they would not be criticized by this world with its backward principles despite its claims to be civilized. If they cannot erase them then they try to misinterpret them and distort their meanings so that they suit the whims and desires of their masters. I will not say so that they suit their whims and desires, for they are too weak to have their own whims and desires, and too ignorant. Rather it is the whims and desires of their masters and teachers among the missionaries and colonialists, the enemies of Islam." ...

Those who proclaim the verses and ahaadeeth of jihad nowadays are subject to a number of accusations. They are called terrorists, extremists, enemies of peace and bloodthirsty, and are accused of wanting to destroy twentieth century civilization.

This is the unfortunate reality in which the Muslim ummah is living nowadays. That is because we have given up supporting our religion and doing the duties that Allaah has enjoined upon us.

Allaah has commanded us to support His religion and to wage jihad against His enemies.

There are so many verses that enjoin jihad against the mushrikeen and fighting them until all submission is for Allaah alone; they clearly state that it is obligatory and is prescribed and is compulsory. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

"Jihaad holy fighting in Allaah's Cause) is ordained for you (Muslims) though you dislike it, and it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you and that you like a thing which is bad for you. Allaah knows but you do not know"

[al-Baqarah 2:216]

Rulings on jihad

The scholars (may Allaah have mercy on them) have mentioned the rulings on jihad and have stated that jihad is of two types:

1 - Taking THE INITIATIVE in fighting

This means PURSUING the kaafirs in their lands and calling them to Islam and fighting them if they do not agree to submit to the rule of Islam.

This kind of jihad is fard kifaayah (a communal obligation) upon the Muslims. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

"And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and polytheism, i.e. worshipping others besides Allaah), and the religion (worship) will all be for Allaah Alone [in the whole of the world]. But if they cease (worshipping others besides Allaah), then certainly, Allaah is All-Seer of what they do"

[al-Anfaal 8:39]

"Then when the Sacred Months (the Ist, 7th, 11th, and 12th months of the Islamic calendar) have passed, then kill the Mushrikoon (see V.2:105) wherever you find them, and capture them and besiege them, and lie in wait for them in each and every ambush. But if they repent [by rejecting Shirk (polytheism) and accept Islamic Monotheism] and perform As-Salaah (Iqaamat-as-Salaah), and give Zakaah, then leave their way free. Verily, Allaah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful"

[al-Tawbah 9:5]

"and fight against the Mushrikoon (polytheists, pagans, idolaters, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allaah) collectively as they fight against you collectively. But know that Allaah is with those who are Al-Muttaqoon (the pious"

[al-Tawbah 9:36]

"March forth, whether you are light (being healthy, young and wealthy) or heavy (being ill, old and poor), and strive hard with your wealth and your lives in the Cause of Allaah. This is better for you, if you but knew" [al-Tawbah 9:41]

It was narrated from Ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: "I have been commanded to fight the people until they bear witness that there is no god but Allaah, and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah, and establish regular prayer, and pay zakaah, If they do that then their blood and wealth is safe from me, except by the laws of Islam, and their reckoning will be with Allaah."

Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 24; Muslim, 29.

Muslim (3533) narrated from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: "Whoever dies without having fought or thought to himself about fighting has died following one of the branches of hypocrisy."

All of these texts - and many others in the Qur'aan and Sunnah - mean that it is obligatory for the Muslims to wage jihad against the kuffaar AND TAKE THE INITIATIVE IN THAT. The scholars are unanimously agreed that jihad against the kuffar, and seeking them in their own lands, and calling them to Islam, and waging jihad against them if they do not accept Islam or accept paying the jizyah, IS OBLIGATORY and has not been abrogated.

Shaykh al-Islam (28/249) said:

Everyone who hears the call of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) to the religion of Allaah with which he was sent and does not respond to it must be fought so that there will be no fitnah and so that submission will all be for Allaah.

Ibn 'Atiyah said (2/43): There remains scholarly consensus that jihad is a communal obligation upon the ummah of Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and if some of the Muslims undertake this duty the rest are absolved of responsibility...

This is the ruling on physical jihad in Islam, whether THAT IS TAKING THE INITIATIVE TO CALL the kuffaar to enter this religion AND SUBJUGATE THEM TO THE RULE OF ISLAM, or jihad to defend the religion and honour of the Muslims.

We ask Allaah to bring the Muslims back to their religion.

And Allaah knows best.

Islam Q&A ( (Question #34830: Ruling on physical jihad; capital and underline emphasis ours)

This same Salafi site has this to say about the accusation that Islam was spread by the sword:

Undoubtedly taking the initiative in fighting HAS A GREAT EFFECT IN SPREADING ISLAM and bringing people into the religion of Allaah in crowds. Hence the hearts of the enemies of Islam are filled with fear of jihad.

In the English-language Muslim World Magazine it says: There should be some kind of fear in the western world, one of the causes of which is that since the time it first appeared in Makkah, Islam has never decreased in numbers, rather it has always continued to increase and spread. Moreover Islam is not only a religion, rather one of its pillars is jihad.

Robert Bean says: The Muslims conquered the entire world before and they could do it again.

The Orientalists wanted to slander Islam by claiming that it was spread by the sword.

The orientalist Thomas Arnold wrote his book The Preaching of Islam with the aim of killing off the spirit of jihad among the Muslims and proving that Islam was not spread by the sword, rather that it spread by means of peaceful preaching, free from any use of force.

The Muslims fell into the trap that was set up for them. When they heard the orientalists' accusations that Islam was spread by the sword, they said: You are mistaken, listen to a refutation from one of your own people, this Thomas says such and such.

The defeatists among the Muslims come out to defend Islam, and they want to disavow Islam of this so-called lie, so they deny that Islam was spread by the sword, and they say that jihad is not prescribed in Islam, except in the case of self-defence. There is no such thing in Islam as taking the initiative in fighting in their view. THIS GOES AGAINST WHAT THE MUSLIM SCHOLARS HAVE STATED, LET ALONE THE FACT THAT IT GOES AGAINST THE QUR'AAN AND SUNNAH.

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah said in Majmoo' al-Fataawa, 28/263...

So whoever deviates from the Book is to be brought back with iron, i.e. by force. Hence the soundness of the religion IS BASED ON THE QUR'AAN AND THE SWORD. It was narrated that Jaabir ibn 'Abd-Allaah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) commanded us to strike with this, meaning the sword, whoever turns away from this, meaning the Qur'aan.

Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in al-Faroosiyyah (p.18):

Allaah sent him - meaning the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) - with the guiding Book AND THE CONQUERING SWORD, ahead of the Hour, so that Allaah alone would be worshipped with no partner or associate, and his provision was placed beneath the shade of his sword and spear. Allaah has established the religion of Islam with proof and evidence, AND WITH THE SWORD AND SPEAR, BOTH TOGETHER AND INSEPARABLE.

This is some of the evidence from the Qur'aan and Sunnah. The evidence clearly indicates that the sword is one of the most important means that led to the spread of Islam...

2 - Allaah has commanded us to prepare the means of fighting against the kuffaar and frightening them. He says (interpretation of the meaning):

"And make ready against them all you can of power, including steeds of war (tanks, planes, missiles, artillery) to threaten the enemy of Allaah and your enemy, and others besides whom, you may not know but whom Allaah does know"

[al-Anfaal 8:60]

If Islam was only spread by peaceful means, what would the kuffaar have to be afraid of? Of mere words spoken on the tongue? In al-Saheehayn it is narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) fear as far as a month's journey." Would the kuffaar be afraid of being told, "become Muslim, but if you do not then you are free to believe and do whatever you want"? or were they afraid of jihad and the imposition of the jizyah and being humiliated? That may make them enter Islam SO THAT THEY MAY BE SPARED THIS HUMILIATION.

3 - When the Messenger called people to Islam, HIS CALL WAS ACCOMPANIED BY THE SWORD, and he commanded his leaders to do likewise, so that when the people saw the serious of the Muslims in calling people to their religion, that dispelled any confusion.

Al-Bukhaari (3009) and Muslim (2406) narrated that Sahl ibn Sa'd (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said on the day of Khaybar: "Tomorrow I will give the banner to a man at whose hands victory will come, one who loves Allaah and His Messenger, and Allaah and His Messenger love him." The people spent that night wondering which of them would be given the banner and all of them were hoping for it. Then he (the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)) said, "Where is 'Ali?" It was said, "His eye is hurting." So he spat in his eyes and made du'aa' for him, and he was healed, as if there had not been anything wrong with him. Then he gave him the flag and he ['Ali] said: "Shall I fight them so that they will be like us?" He said: "Go ahead, until you reach their encampment, then call them to Islam and tell them what they are obliged to do, for by Allaah if Allaah were to guide a man at your hands that would be better for you than having red camels [the best kind]."


Muslim (3261) narrated that Buraydah said: When the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) appointed a commander to lead an army or a raiding party, he would advise him to fear Allaah with regard to himself and the Muslims with him, then he said: "Fight in the name of Allaah and for the sake of Allaah. Fight those who disbelieve in Allaah, fight but do not steal from the war booty (before it is shared out), betray, or mutilate. Do not kill children. If you meet your enemy of the mushrikeen, call them to three things, and whichever one of them they respond to, accept that from them and leave them alone. Then call them to Islam and if they respond, accept that from them and leave them alone. If they refuse but they pay the jizyah, then they have responded to you, so accept that from them and leave them alone. If they refuse then seek the help of Allaah and fight them."

So the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) told his commanders to call the kuffaar to Islam WHILST WIELDING THEIR SWORDS OVER THEIR HEADS. If they refused to become Muslim then they should pay the jizyah WITH HUMILITY. If they refused then there was nothing left for them BUT THE SWORD - "If they refuse then seek the help of Allaah and fight them"

4 - The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: "I have been sent ahead of the Hour with the sword so that Allaah will be worshipped alone, and my provision has been placed in the shade of my spear, and humiliation has been decreed for those who go against my command, and whoever imitates a people is one of them." Narrated by Ahmad, 4869; Saheeh al-Jaami', 2831.

The fact that the sword and power were means of spreading Islam IS NOT A SOURCES [sic] FOR ISLAM, rather it is one of its strengths and virtues, because that makes people adhere to that which will benefit them in this world and in the Hereafter. Many people are foolish and lacking in wisdom and knowledge, and if they are left to their own devices they will remain blinded to the truth, indulging in their whims and desires. So Allaah has prescribed jihad in order to bring them back to the truth and to that which will benefit them. Undoubtedly wisdom dictates that the fool should be prevented from doing that which will harm him, AND SHOULD BE FORCED to do that which will benefit him.

Al-Bukhaari (4557) narrated that Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: " 'You (true believers in Islamic Monotheism, and real followers of Prophet Muhammad and his Sunnah) are the best of peoples ever raised up for mankind' [Aal- Imraan 3:110 - interpretation of the meaning]." He said: "You are the best (i.e., the most beneficial) of people for mankind, you bring them in the chains that are around their necks until they enter Islam." Can people be brought in chains except in the case of jihad??

This is something for which Islam deserves to be praised, not condemned. The defeatists should fear Allaah lest they distort this religion and cause it to become weak on the basis of the claim that it is a religion of peace. Yes, it is the religion of peace but in the sense of saving all of mankind from worshipping anything other than Allaah and submitting all of mankind to the rule of Allaah. This is the religion of Allaah, not the ideas of any person or the product of human thought, so that those who promote it should feel ashamed to state its ultimate goal, which is that all religion (worship) should be for Allaah alone. When the ideas that people follow are all produced by human beings and the systems and laws that control their lives are all made up by human beings, then in this case each idea and each system has the right to live safely within its own borders so long as it does not transgress the borders of others, so the various ideas and laws can co-exist and not try to destroy one another. But when there is a divine system and law, and alongside it there are human systems and laws, then the matter is fundamentally different, and the divine law has the right to remove the barriers and free people from enslavement to human beings.

Fiqh al-Da'wah by Sayyid Qutb, 217-222.

It says in Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa'imah (12/14):

Islam spread by means of proof and evidence to those who listened to the message and responded to it, and it spread BY MEANS OF FORCE AND THE SWORD to those who were stubborn and arrogant, until they were overwhelmed and became no longer stubborn, and submitted to that reality.

And Allaah knows best.

Islam Q&A (
(Question #43087: Was Islam spread by the sword?; capital and underline emphasis ours)

In fact, one of the founders of al-Qaeda, the late Sheikh Abdullah Azzam (1941-1989), wrote the following about offensive Jihad:

Jihad Against the Kuffar is of two Types

Offensive Jihad (where the enemy is attacked IN HIS OWN TERRITORY).

Where the Kuffar are not gathering to fight the Muslims. The fighting becomes Fard Kifaya with the minimum requirement of appointing believers to guard borders, and the sending of an army at least once a year TO TERRORISE THE ENEMIES OF ALLAH. It is a duty of the Imam to assemble and send out an army unit into the land of war once or twice every year. Moreover, it is the responsibility of the Muslim population to assist him, and if he does not send an army he is in sin.- And the Ulama have mentioned that this type of jihad IS FOR MAINTAINING THE PAYMENT OF JIZYA. The scholars of the principles of religion have also said: "Jihad is Daw'ah WITH A FORCE, and is OBLIGATORY to perform with all available capabilities, UNTIL THERE REMAINS ONLY MUSLIMS OR PEOPLE WHO SUBMIT TO ISLAM."… It is furthered in a sahih hadith narrated by Ebaad Bin Asaamat that the Prophet (saw) said: "it is upon the Muslim to listen and obey in hardship and prosperity, in what he likes and dislikes, and even if he is not given his rights". Therefore, the pillar of the most important of obligations, is the marching forward in times of hardship as well as prosperity. As has been stated, contrary to Hajj, the obligation remains present in times of hardship. And this is IN OFFENSIVE JIHAD. So it is clear that defensive jihad carries a greater degree of obligation… (Defence of the Muslim Lands The First Obligation After Iman, Chapter 1; capital emphasis ours)

A Fard is a compulsory duty, an obligation, and according to this Sheikh a Fard Kifaya,

"is the Fard that if performed by some, the obligation falls from the rest. The meaning of Fard Kifaya, is that if there are not enough people that respond to it, then all the people are in sin. If sufficient amount of people respond, the obligation falls from the rest. The call for it in the beginning is like the call for establishing a Fard Ayn, but it differs in that a Fard Kifaya is absolved by the performance of some of the people. But a Fard Ayn is not absolved by any number of people performing it.- That is why Fakhr ar Razi defined Fard Kifaya as the obligation that is carried out without looking to the souls of the ones who perform it. (Chapter 3: Fard Ayn and Fard Kifaya)

He writes in another section:

The Revelation of the Order to Fight

Many writers commit errors on the subject of the permissibility of making peace. They quote Qur'anic text without knowing the chronological order of the revelation. While they must have knowledge of the succession of verses on jihad in the Qu'ran that lead up to the revelation of the Verse of the Sword in Surah At Tauba:

"...And fight against the Mushrikun (polytheists, pagans, idolaters, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah, etc.) collectively, as they fight against you collectively, but know that Allah is with those who are AI Muttaqun." (Surah at Tauba: Verse 36).

"...Then kill the Mushrikun wherever you find them, and capture them and besiege them and prepare for them each and every ambush..." (Surah al Bakarah: Verse 191).

Ibn al Qayim explained in Zad al Mi'ad that jihad was permitted during the Hijr, then it was ordered to combat those who fought them, finally it was ordered to fight the Mushrikun in general.

Ibn Abidin said-: "Know that the order to fight was revealed IN STAGES. The Prophet (saw) was initially ordered with Tabligh and turning away. The Exalted said:

"Therefore proclaim openly (Allah's message-Islamic monotheism) that which you are commanded and turn away from the Mushrikun." (Surah al Hijr: Verse 94).

Then to Invite with wisdom:

"Invite (mankind, O Mohammed s.a.w.) to the way of your Lord (i. e. Islam) with wisdom (i. e. with the divine inspiration and the Qu'ran) and fair preaching, and argue with them in away that is better..." (Surah al Nahl: Verse 125).

Then, permission to fight was granted:

"Permission to fight is given to those (i. e. believers against disbelievers), who are fighting them, (and) because they (believers) have been wronged, and surely, Allah is able to give them (believers) victory." (Surah al Hajj: Verse 39). Then they were ordered to fight if they were attacked:

"...but if they attack you, then kill them. Such is the recompense of the disbelievers. " (Surah al Bakarah: Verse 191)

Then, they were ordered to fight with conditions, when the sacred months had passed:

"Then when the sacred months (the Ist, 7th, 11th, and 12th months of the Islamic calendar) have past, then kill the Mushrikun wherever you find them..." (Surah at Tauba: Verse 5).

Finally, he was ordered to fight ALL OUT IN GENERAL:

"And fight in the way of Allah those who fight you, but transgress not the limits. Truly Allah likes not the transgressors." (Surah al Bakarah: Verse 190).

This is why it is so essential to have knowledge of the sequence of the revelation. It is also necessary to clarify that initially it is not permitted to enter into political negotiations in the stage which is for Da'wah, before the Da’wah is properly established with an authority which can preserve its aims. If the Islamic Da'wah enters negotiations in the initial stage, then its agenda becomes compromised and muddled and it will become inconsistent in the people's understanding. It will have no solid foundation and the Da'wah is lost in political games and national ties. (Chapter 4: Important Questions; underline and capital emphasis ours)

Another Muslim website,, which is dedicated to establishing a Khilafah or Islamic Caliphate state, responds to those who would wish to argue that Jihad is defensive only:

Jihad is defensive only

As for the opinion that Jihaad in Islam is defensive and not offensive by using the evidence (and similar evidences):

وَإِن جَنَحُواْ لِلسَّلْمِ فَاجْنَحْ لَهَا وَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللّهِ إِنَّهُ هُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ

“But if the enemy incline towards peace, do you (also) incline towards peace, and trust in Allah: for He is One that Hears and Knows (all things)” (tmq 8:61)

وَقَاتِلُواْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ الَّذِينَ يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ وَلاَ تَعْتَدُواْ إِنَّ اللّهَ لاَ يُحِبِّ الْمُعْتَدِينَ

“Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you, but do not transgress limits; for Allah loves not transgressors.” (tmq 2:190)

This is also incorrect and invalid for its application upon this matter is incorrect for the following reasons:

1. The evidences of Jihaad are general ‘mutlaq’ evidences and include all offensive and defensive actions e.g. waging warm to pre-empt an attack, to protect the borders, killing on the battlefield. To restrict or specify the evidences only to defensive and not offensive Jihaad, requires a textual evidence to show that the Jihaad is restricted to defensive Jihaad only. And there is no such text in the Quran or the Sunnah that restricts or specifies this. Therefore, the evidences regarding Jihaad remain general and to be used for all types of war and all types of fighting with the enemy.

So it is invalid (baatil) to use the verse,

وَإِن جَنَحُواْ لِلسَّلْمِ فَاجْنَحْ لَهَا
“But if the enemy incline towards peace, do you...” (tmq 8:61), to show that Jihaad is only defensive. That is also the case with the rest of the evidences that are used by proponents of this erroneous understanding. This and similar verses cannot be used to specify or restrict the generality of the verses in surah al-Tawba because they were the last verses revealed regarding Jihaad and what came prior to these verses regarding Jihaad does not specify the verses which were revealed after them or came afterwards. And the verse does not restrict the latter revealed verses either.

There has to be a text present to restrict or specify the general verse and they also must be revealed after the initial, which are general or mutlaq or even they (i.e. those verses which are restricted or specific) should be mentioned together with the general verses so that the two situations can be shown (i.e. to show the different situations upon which they apply).

So Allah (Subhanna Wa Ta'ala) says: وَإِن جَنَحُواْ لِلسَّلْمِ , which is regarding the time of the peace.

And He (Subhanna Wa Ta'ala) says,

قَاتِلُواْ الَّذِينَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللّهِ وَلاَ بِالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ وَلاَ يُحَرِّمُونَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَلاَ يَدِينُونَ
دِينَ الْحَقِّ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْكِتَابَ حَتَّى يُعْطُواْ الْجِزْيَةَ عَن يَدٍ وَهُمْ صَاغِرُونَ
“Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, nor acknowledge the religion of Truth, (even if they are) of the People of the Book, until they pay the Jizya with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued”, (tmq 9:29) which is at the time of war and fighting. So peace and fighting are two situations, which remain un-abrogated, i.e. neither abrogates the other.

2. In addition to this, the saying and actions of Muhammad (Salalahu Alaihi Wasallam) show that Jihaad definitely is to start (offensive) fighting the kuffar to make the Words of Allah the highest and to propagate (da’wa) the call of Islam. Muhammad (Salalahu Alaihi Wasallam) said,

امرت ان اقاتل الناس حتى يشهدوا ان لا اله الا الله وان محمد رسول الله , ويفيموا الصلاة ويؤتوا الزكاة,فإذا فعلوا ذلك عصموا من دماءهم واموالهم إلا بحقها وحسا بهم على الله
I have been ordered to fight the people until they bear witness that, ‘there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is His Messenger’ and they establish the prayer and the zakat. And if they do this, then from me is protected their blood and their wealth except by the right granted by Allah.

As for his (Salalahu Alaihi Wasallam) actions, they are full of actions that show Jihaad is to start the fighting. So when he went out to Badr to take the caravan belonging to the Quraysh, this was going out to fight, this is offensive – as Muhammad (Salalahu Alaihi Wasallam) initiated the action before the Quraysh. Likewise, when Muhammad (Salalahu Alaihi Wasallam) invaded Hawazin in the battle of Hunayn, when he (Salalahu Alaihi Wasallam) seiged Ta’if and the battle of Mutah to fight the Romans and the Battle of Tabuk – all of these are evidences to show that Jihaad is to start fighting kuffar (offensive). This should clarify the erroneous view that in origin Jihaad is defensive.

3. From Ijma as-Sahabah, it is clear that Jihaad is fighting Fi Sabeel Lillah to carry Islam and that it is offensive. The evidence, which is sufficient to explain this, is the opening of Iraq, Persia, Sham, Egypt and North Africa. They were all opened at the time of the Sahabah with their Ijma’ (consensus).

Therefore, all what we mentioned are sufficient evidences to refute the claim that Jihaad is defensive. (JIHAD; 29 May 2005)

For more on these points, please consult the following articles:

And to see how "defensive" Jihad turned into offensive wars and killing already in the Quran and the life of Muhammad, please see this article.

In light of the foregoing, we come to the conclusion that the Quran does indeed permit the killing of women and children, allowing the Muslims to kill innocent persons during Jihad.

This concludes the first part. Continue with Part 2.

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