thought that "the prophet" (Deut. xviii, 18) was the Messiah (cf. John vi. 14); others did not (cf. John vii. 40-41), thinking him to be one of the Messiah's forerunners. The whole passage (John i. 19-28), shows that what the questioners wanted to find out was whether John was the Messiah or one of his forerunners. There would have been no sense in asking whether he was a supposed prophet who was to come after the Messiah, since the Messiah had not yet manifested Himself as such. (Vide Godet on John i. 21.)

232. M. John iv. 21 is a prophecy that Jerusalem would no longer be the Holy City and the Qiblah, but that when Muhammad came Mecca should take its place.

C. In verses 23, 24 Christ Himself explains verse 21.

[233. M. In 1 John iv. 2, 3 Muhammad is spoken of as the Spirit of God, because he taught that Jesus Christ had "come in the flesh," i.e. that He was man and not God.

C. The title "Spirit of God" is neither in the Qur'an nor in the Traditions given to Muhammad, nor do any true Muslims give him such a blasphemous title now. These verses are in refutation of the Docetic heresy. Your views about Jesus are refuted in very plain language in 1 John v. 5, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 20, ii. 22, 23.]

[234. M. In Jude 14, 15 "the Lord" who was to come is Muhammad, the apostle with the sword.


C. This title belongs to God, and is given to Him only in the Qur'an, and not to Muhammad (cf. Surah IX., At Taubah, 31). This is not a true Muhammadan argument.]

235. M. In Rev. ii. 26-29 Muhammad is spoken of as coming to rule the nations with a rod of iron.

C. By saying this you imply that Muhammad kept Christ's works (i. e. obeyed His commands) unto the end, and that therefore he received from Christ this power, which Christ had received from His Father! You who deny Christ's Divine Sonship, and deem Muhammad a greater prophet than Jesus, cannot really believe that these verses refer to Muhammad.

We are therefore absolutely unable to find any proof whatever, from miracle, prophecy, or anything else, that Muhammad was from God1.

1 A learned Maulavi from Swat, now a Christian convert, was first brought to doubt Muhammad's claims by reflecting upon the durud (darud) or petition in which, at the close of the fixed prayers (salawat), a Muslim says, "O Lord, have mercy upon and give peace to Muhammad," &c. The thought arose in his mind, "In no other religion is it thought necessary to pray for God's mercy on its founder. Why then is Muhammad prayed for?" He next noticed that in the kalimah or Muhammadan creed the title given to Muhammad is merely rasul: he is not even called a nabi or "prophet," whereas far higher titles are given to Christ in the Qur'an itself (§§ 116-122, 129). In argument it would be well to put these objections to Muhammad's claims either in the form of the tale told here, or as questions, asking, e.g., "Why is it necessary for Muslims to pray for Muhammad?" This leads the inquirer to form his own conclusions. (Dr. H. M. Clark.)