Nothing can be clearer than that here we have a prophecy of his coming.

C. The word Paraclete [Παρακληρος ] does not mean "the Praised," as Muhammad or Ahmad does, nor has it any such signification. It has two meanings: (1) the Comforter or Sustainer, and (2) the Advocate (وكيل Wakil). The first of these titles is clearly inapplicable to Muhammad, and the second is denied to him and to all else but God Himself in the Qur'an (Surahs XVII., Al Asra' or Banu Israil, 56; IV., An Nisa', 83), since it is said that "God is sufficient as an Advocate." In the New Testament it is applied only (1) to the Holy Spirit, as in these chapters of St John's Gospel, and (2) to Christ Himself (here by implication, xiv. 16; also 1 John ii. 1). Thus the Qur'an (Surah IV., An Nisa', 83), by asserting that God is sufficient as an Advocate (وكيل), supports the Biblical statement of the deity of the Son and of the Holy Ghost. Muhammad was doubtless told by some one that he was described and foretold by Christ under the title of the Paraclete: hence the verse you quote on the subject. But his informant evidently confounded the word Παρακληρος with another word Περικλυτος, which latter, if it had been used, might have been translated "very renowned"—nearly the same meaning as "Ahmad."

221. M. Doubtless the word used by Christ was ( ), and this has been altered.

C. This latter word, though Greek, does not


occur at all in the whole of the New Testament. It occurs neither in various readings nor in the old versions of John xiv-xvi, made long before Muhammad's time. Hence it is absolutely certain that Christ did not use it here. The Arabic and Persian Baraklit and Faraqlit could not come from Περικλυτος. If you read the verses in these chapters where Παρακληρος is used, you will see that they do not apply to Muhammad (xiv. 16, 17, 26, xv. 26, xvi. 7-15) or to any other man. For (1) the promised Comforter is a spirit, the Spirit of Truth, invisible, who was then dwelling with the disciples of Christ, and was to be in their hearts; (2) He was sent by Christ (xv. 26, xvi. 7); (3) His work was to convict of sin, the essence of which was disbelief in Christ (xvi. 9); (4) His teaching was to consist in glorifying Christ, and was not to be His own but what Christ gave Him (xvi. 14).

222. M. Muhammad was given the Qur'an by the Holy Spirit, the angel Gabriel1. The Qur'an came to confirm the true Gospel, which was so called because it bore witness to Muhammad. He did glorify Christ (John xvi. 14), because he taught that Christ was a great prophet, born of a virgin, and that Christ ascended to heaven without being crucified, and was not God and did not claim to be. Muhammad does dwell in the hearts of all true Muslims through their faith in him (John xiv. 17).

1 This is what the Muslims understand by the Holy Spirit (روح القدس ): cf. Surah XVI., 104.