worship adopted by the Muslims; and the mention of "Kedar" distinctly indicates the Arabian prophet.

C. [Those of us who know what Muhammadan worship is will recognize that the word "song" does not describe it, since they exclude music from their worship.] "The villages that Kedar doth inhabit"—this phrase denotes certain Arabian tribes, such as those that were Christian in Muhammad's time and doubtless will be so again. But "my servant" in verse 1 is explained in chapter xlix. 3 as meaning "Israel," doubtless the spiritual Israel, those who believed in Christ from among the Jews, and in lii. 13 the old Jewish commentators explain the same word as referring to the Messiah. Christ came from Israel and represented it, which Muhammad did not. Chapter xlii. 1-4 evidently suits Christ and not Muhammad, and in our own days we see the fulfilment of the prophecy in verse 4, though it was partly fulfilled when the islands and coast-lands of Europe were converted to Christ. That verses 1-4 refer to Christ is taught in Matt. xii. 17-21.

213. M. Isa. liii is a prophecy not about Jesus but about Muhammad. The latter was "a root out of a dry ground," for he arose in Arabia (verse 2). He "made his grave with the wicked," for he was buried in Medina (verse 9). The words "he shall see his seed" (verse 10) are true of Muhammad and not of Christ, as is the promise


that he should "divide the spoil with the strong" (verse 12), i. e. with the Ansars, as Muhammad did in all his attacks on his enemies and the enemies of God. The words "he hath poured out his soul unto death" may be metaphorical (verse 12), but they may also be literal, for Muhammad did die and Jesus ascended to heaven without dying. [But see §§ 93-951.]

C. The whole of the New Testament shows how this chapter was fulfilled in Christ. See also Ps. xxii. The old Jewish commentators also understood it of the Messiah. Verses 5, 6, 7, 8, and a large part of verse 12 are evidently inapplicable to Muhammad1.

214. M. Isa. liv. 1: "Sing, O barren, thou that didst not bear." This is a prophecy of the birth of Muhammad from the family of Ishmael, and predicts that more will be brought to God as his followers than were converted by all the prophets who came from Israel.

C. The words of comfort are addressed to Israel in captivity at Babylon, and predict (verses 7-15) their return. St. Paul (Gal. iv. 27) explains their

1 It is hardly worth while to answer this argument here at any length, as the answer so readily suggests itself. The argument has great weight with Muslims, especially about "dividing the spoil." I have met it in Persia, and Rev. H. D. Goldsmith mentions the whole argument as above as met with in India (C.M.S. Annual Report for 1902, p. 286). Vide § 187. The spoil was to be divided by the Messiah after his death. Muhammad did not do this: he did it during his life. (Rev. Dr. Wherry.)