all together"; and the Qur'an, addressing Muslims, says, "There is none of you but descends into it," that is, hell-fire (Surah XIX., Maryam, 72). That is a terrible prospect, in spite of the attempts which commentators make to console you with promises.

[185. M. The name of God's prophet on the seal which will be stamped upon our foreheads will prevent the flames from hurting us1.

C. If you are wise men, you will write the name of Muhammad on your foreheads and make the experiment with fire now, before it is too late to change your opinion should it be wrong!]

186. M. Ours is the broad, easy way (Surah LXXXVII., Al A'la, 8), while yours is narrow and difficult.

C. You say well, but Christ has told us whither the broad way leads (Matt. vii. 13). Does not the Qur'an agree with this in telling you that none of you shall fail to arrive at hell-fire (Surah XIX., Maryam, 72)?

187. M. Isaiah's words, "He was wounded for our transgressions" (Isa. liii. 5), cannot refer to Jesus, but must have reference to some prophet who preceded Isaiah2.

1 This view is not now entertained by educated Indian Muslims. But it is sometimes brought forward by Muhammadans in Persia, and is in accordance with the well-known tradition that the nineteen angels who preside over hell are thus preserved from the fire.
2 How little weight this argument has with Muslims who know Arabic is seen from the fact that such (vide § 213) men sometimes state that Isa. liii is a prophecy of Muhammad's coming and work.

C. Even if we suppose that, and apply the same supposition to Ps. xxii, where also the past tense is used, we see that the Old Testament agrees with the New in declaring man's need of an atonement, for "without shedding of blood there is no remission" (Heb. ix. 22). But what you say cannot be correct, since neither the Taurat, the Zabur, the Injil, nor the Qur'an tells us of any such prophet, and reason proves that no mere man could atone for the sins of all men. A very slight knowledge of Hebrew or even of Arabic grammar would show you that the past tense is often used for the future, when the future event is so firmly fixed and certain to come to pass that it may be regarded as already past. An example of this from the Qur'an itself (according to many commentators) is found in the first verse of Surah LIV., Al Qamar, where the Day of Judgment is said to have approached, and the moon to have been split, the meaning being that these things will take place. With God there is neither past nor future, all is present. The Hebrew past tense is called the permansive, because it denotes a permanent state of things. The older1 Jewish

1 The Targum explains "My servant" in Isa. lii. 13 as "The Messiah." Solomon Yarhi says "Our fathers assigned it to the Messiah," and adds, "For they say that the Messiah is stricken, as it is written, 'He took our infirmities and bare our griefs.'" R. Moses Alshekh also says that many said this was spoken "of the King Messiah." In his comment on Zech. iv. 7, also, Solomon Yarhi quotes Isa. lii. 13, and refers it to the Messiah.