a sinner and a false prophet, according to the Torah: for in Deut. xviii. 20 [cf. xiii. 5, and Jer. xiv. 14, 15, and Zech. xiii. 3] it is prophesied that a false prophet "shall die," that is, shall be put to death.

C. This is not a prophecy but a command. It is one thing to say that a false prophet shall be put to death, and quite a different thing to declare that every prophet who was put to death was a false prophet. For example, John (Yahya') the Baptist was put to death, but the Qur'an speaks of him as a true prophet in Surah III., Al 'Imran, 34 (and in Surah XIX., Maryam, 13, he is mentioned as given "the Book" by God: cf. verses 1-15, also Surah XXI., Al Anbiya', 89, 90). Abel [Habil] was slain by his brother (Surah V., Al Maidah, 33), but that did not prove him to be a false teacher. So also in Surah II., Al Baqarah, 81, and Surah V., Al Maidah, 74, it is said that the Israelites slew some true apostles sent to them by God.

94. M. But the Qur'an distinctly denies that Jesus was crucified and slain by the Jews (Surah IV., An Nisa', 156), which the Gospels assert.

C. Possibly the reason why the Qur'an denies that He was crucified by the Jews is because, as the Gospels assert, He was really crucified, not by the Jews, but by the Roman soldiers (Matt. xxvii. 26-35) at the command of Pontius Pilate, the Roman governor of Judaea (Matt. xxvii. 2, 26)1. The guilt,

1 This is suggested only as a way for Muslims to escape from
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nevertheless, rested on the Jews (Matt. xxvii. 24, 25; Acts ii. 23). The Qur'an, however, elsewhere (Surah III., Al 'Imran, 48, and Surah XIX., Maryam, 34, and perhaps in Surah IV., An Nisa', 157) speaks of Jesus' death, though your commentators endeavour to explain that this is yet future1. We are quite willing to grant that in this matter the Qur'an contradicts the whole teaching of the apostles and of many of the prophets (cf. Ps. xxii.; Isa. liii.) on the subject, but that shakes the argument in favour of the Qur'an, not that in favour of the Bible.

95. M. Why do you think that He was crucified?

C. Because (1) the prophets foretold it; (2) the Gospel relates it; (3) the apostles testify to it; (4) the Jews confess it; and (5) so do the Romans, as their historians testify. When the guilty parties themselves confess the crime, how can we doubt their guilt? Certain heretics in early times, like Mani in Persia, said that the Jews had crucified some one else2 in mistake for Jesus, but this is

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a difficulty. Christians consider that the Qur'an is wrong here, as it implies that Christ did not die on the cross.
1 Yet Baizawi admits the death of Christ on the cross, but says He remained without life for only a few hours. Vide his commentary, Cairo edition, vol. i; p. 209. (Rev. Dr. Zwemer.)
2 See Mosheim's History, Read's edition, Cent. III., Pt. II., Cap. v., ยง 6. Mani (Ep. Fund. ap. Evodium) taught "Princeps itaque tenebrarum cruci est affixus." The Basilidans said that Simon of Cyrene had been crucified in mistake for Christ; the "Gospel of Barnabas" says Judas was. Photius mentions that
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