opponent, nor to gain a merely logical victory, but to win souls to Christ. Hence, in argument, we should endeavour to remove misconceptions which hinder Muslims from giving careful attention to the Gospel message. The object that we have in view in controversy is chiefly to remove stumbling-blocks. We must not expect it to convert a soul. That is the work of the Holy Spirit, whose aid must at every step be prayerfully and believingly invoked. Urge the inquirer or opponent prayerfully to read the Bible, especially the New Testament, and not to content himself with finding fault with it and discovering difficulties in it.1

2. Endeavour to limit the discussion on each occasion to one or two definite points, which should be settled upon with your opponent beforehand. To let him hurry off from one point to another without waiting for an answer is a mere waste of time, or worse. Try also to bring the argument to some definite conclusion. This can be done only by planning out the course of the discussion, as far as possible, in one's own mind, and keeping the goal steadily in view.

3. It is impossible to pay too much attention to fairness and courtesy 2 in your arguments. If you are polite and kind in your words and manner,

1 Rev. F. Laurence.
2 "I should lay at least equal stress on fairness. I think it is much less frequently found in arguments than is courtesy of manner, and I believe it has an enormous effect." (The Right Rev. the Bishop of Lahore.) Vide No. II below.

your opponent will generally, even against his will, be forced to observe the rules of courtesy. Regard him as a brother for whom Christ died, and to whom you are sent with the message of reconciliation. You can generally repress any rudeness on his part, without offending him, by showing courtesy to him and making it clear, by your manner, that you expect the same conduct from him. Never let an argument degenerate into a quarrel.

4. Remember that your opponent may be endeavouring to make you angry. If he can succeed in even leading those present to imagine that you are so, he will in their opinion have gained the victory. For example: as Byron states, a Turk's very beard is supposed to curl with wrath. ("Then curled his very beard with ire.") To prevent one's anger from being thus evidenced, an Oriental will frequently stroke his moustaches. If a Christian should do this, even thoughtlessly, in argument, his opponent has been known to pause, look round on the audience to call their attention to it, and then begin most profusely to apologize, with the appearance of fear, for having quite unintentionally made him angry! He has gained the day; he has made his opponent angry, or pretends to think he has, and perhaps convinces the rest that it is so! Anger of course shows consciousness of defeat.

5. Endeavour to make your opponent feel the terribly deep importance of the matters he is inclined to discuss so lightly. Show him that you regard them as matters