can have any weight until the objections which Muslims bring against it are removed. The best, nay, almost the only way to do this is, as experience has proved, to show that these objections are opposed to the Qur'an's own clear statements and to the views of eminent Muhammadan commentators of the past. Of course Muslims know that the Christian missionary does not accept the Qur'an in the sense in which Muhammadans accept it. In appealing to the testimony of the Qur'an it must not be supposed, however, that we are building upon sand. We do not appeal to its evidence as of any real weight in support of the claims of the Bible upon men. But we quote its testimony to show that the arguments which Muslims now bring against the Bible are confuted in large measure by the statements of the book which they themselves believe to be God's best and final revelation to man, and to be God's own Word, inscribed upon the "Preserved Tablet" in Heaven ages before the creation of the world. In quoting it we acknowledge merely that it has been handed down from Muhammad, and that he claimed for it the lofty position which Muslims accord to it.

Our choice of arguments is limited by our opponent's lack of knowledge; because arguments founded upon circumstances with which he is unacquainted not only fail to hit the mark but are injurious, since Muslims fancy that we are endeavouring to shirk the question at issue, and


they are thus confirmed in their belief as to the strength of their position.

2. I have tried to arrange Muhammadan objections as simply and clearly as possible, indicating the line of argument which I think the best to adopt in answering them. I most gratefully acknowledge my indebtedness to those missionaries and others who have kindly, in compliance with my request, communicated to me the objections they have actually had to meet, and have suggested what seemed to them the best answers to give. I have endeavoured to thank all such by letter, but trust they will permit me to do so here also. It has not been possible, of course, to accept the very words of such suggestions in every case, but I think they will be found to have been carefully considered. Sometimes an optional answer to a difficulty has been given in order that I might avail myself of such valuable hints and advice.

3. The C. M. S. Committee have expressed their desire that I should as far as possible abstain from quoting authorities 1 at any length. I have therefore merely referred my readers to books where they will find the authority for my statements, when this seemed really necessary. Hence too I have not quoted the Qur'anic passages in the original

1 The Rev. Canon Sell hopes to be able to publish in a separate form at Madras the chief Arabic passages to which reference is made in this Manual. This might be found of use as a kind of supplement to the book.